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The Walker Art Center

Chase Wilson

Final project

12/20/2018

With new programs every year attracting more than 400,000 people annually with 70% of those people getting to experience The Walker Art Center for free it’s no wonder why this exhibit demonstrates that the Walker Art Center is the hub for college students in the area taking Art classes. When I was taking Visual Arts last semester and we were assigned to visit an Art center in the area there was no question in my mind that I was going to the walker art center not only is it filled with some of the most iconic pieces like the sculpture “Spoonbridge and Cherry” and the oil painting “Lucretia”, but It offer lots of free visits so for college kids like myself that is a huge factor that plays in. The Walker Art Center has evolved over the past 100 years for a privately-owned collection to an internationally recognized institution. I will be focusing on the last fifty year from 1968-present day. The reason I chose the time frame I did was so that I could talk about me personally going to the Walker Art Center and I could fit in the building being built and expanded. Even though Walker Art has been around for over 100 years the building only opened in 1971 and then was expanded in 1984. the reason I chose The Walker Art Center’s website as one of my sources is because their website easily navigated, they are humble and unbiased, and this is what I used to decide I was going to do my art project there. They have picture of most if not every piece that is there sometimes there are traveling pieces also all the hours, prices and events are on the site making it easy for a college student to plan when they want to go whether they want to plan to attend one of the free days or just go when they please. I chose the Spoonbridge and Cherry as one of my sources because being built in 1985 it fits right in on my timeline and I think that the piece attracts people from all age groups including college students. The spoonbridge and cherry weight a cumulative of 7000 pounds. Other than the Spoonbridge and Cherry, my other primary source is a newspaper article published in 1976 that tells the story of a man visiting the Walker Art Center and telling stories about how fascinated he was. My last source is the Minneapolis website I chose this as one of my sources because its well structured and has really good information about the Center as well.

TIMELINE: [https://cdn.knightlab.com/libs/timeline3/latest/embed/index.html?source=1cdAchZlrz8U-8R9NRlVHSL5Pt2UcNfLEnr1NOgeP4yM&font=Default&lang=en&initial_zoom=2&height=650]


Works Cited.

Oldenburg, Claes, and Coosje Van Bruggen. SpoonBridge and Cherry. 1985. Sculpture, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis.

“Walker Art Center | Contemporary Art Museum | Minneapolis.” Walker Art Center. Accessed December 07, 2018. https://walkerart.org/.

“Walker Art Center.” Meet Minneapolis. Accessed December 05, 2018. https://www.minneapolis.org/directory/walker-art-center/.

Unknown. “An Artist Line Is the Horizon… Whose Mosaics Bespeak the Shore.” Newspapers.mnhs.org. Accessed December 05, 2018. https://newspapers.mnhs.org/jsp/viewer.jsp?doc_id=mnhi0061/0BZ11J5H/76030101&query1=&recoffset=0&collection_filter=All&collection_name=a0d52a4d-6e26-46a9-a66c-752da7f1005b&sort_col=relevance&cnt=0&CurSearchNum=3&recOffset=0&warn=false&page_name=3

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Minneapolis and the people

The city of Minneapolis cares for its residents though project to improve the standard of living as seen on the street of Bryant avenue. In 1974, a map was made to show the public housing units from 1952-1974. On the list of buildings towards the right on the map, the Glennwood apartments are listed and show that they are built on Bryant avenue. When compared to a modern day property map, I found that the streets and highways stay where they are but building are either not longer standing or re-purposed. This is the case for the Glennwood apartments. The Hennepin property maps give the details of market values on Hennepin county buildings. When taking a look into residential buildings from Bryant avenue north and Bryant avenue south, there is a multiple thousand dollar differences. While the city builds, destroy or re-purpose a building for either companies or apartments, Minneapolis also undertakes improvement project. In 2011, the city launched the Byrant avenue bike way project. The projected improve bike ways and paths that run along Bryant avenue. Photos can be seen here of the project. Most recently the city of Minneapolis took an unprecedented step of becoming landlords of residential rental housing. A rental house on Bryant avenue was remodeled by Minneapolis to be rented to tents who were about to be homeless till the city stepped in. The Star tribune has an article about the project. This project has taken a older residential home that has a lower property value and has been remodeled to boost its market value. Through projects the city has funded, Minneapolis finds what they can do to help and benefit their residents.

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Laura Ingalls Wilder Impact

Thesis: Even after the death of Laura Ingalls Wilder, her life and writings still impact people of all ages to this day. 

Laura Ingalls’ affect through her writing:

Resource 1: littlehouseontheprairie.com/in-search-of-laura-about-laura-ingalls-wilder/

Resource 2: shsmo.org/historicmissourians/name/w/wilder/

Resource 3: www.news-leader.com/story/news/local/ozarks/2014/07/27/wilder-continues-leave-large-impression-readers/13255043

Through the links of her impacts through writing, we can clearly see actual people’s take how Laura Ingalls Wilder impacted them and their life. They show how Laura Ingalls Wilder, character and person, showed them how to live and who they wanted to be themselves. Even to this day, her writing impacts children who are just beginning to read about her life and elderly people who have known about her their entire life. 

Laura Ingalls’ affect through her life story: 

Resource 4: https://myhero.com/lauraIngallsWilder

Not only are people affected by her writing her entire life, but they are affected by simply just her life in general. This link, for example, shows a girl who has been impacted by how Laura lived her life and what she did that made her successful in who she became. This shows that not only do people realize the significance in her writing, but also the meaning of her entire life and that she didn’t do it just for show and to be famous one day, but instead to help people in the future and live the best life that she could. 

Laura Ingalls’ writing career: 

Resource 5: http://time.com/3848967/laura-ingalls-wilder-is-back/

Resource 6: https://www.biography.com/people/laura-ingalls-wilder-9531246 

Lastly, the story of her writing career and what she did to achieve her success also is a major impact for other people trying to be successful, and mostly other writers. Knowing how Laura achieved her dream is a major impact to people, and me, that even coming from so little, you can achieve so much. So, these links also show the impact Laura made that it was not just her life that impacts people, but also her career and dream of being a writer and how she achieved that impacts the people that encounter her story. 

 

Laura

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Bryant Ave History


         

Image result for bryant avenue map image
This exhibit shows the geography of Bryant Ave and how it has changed over time and how the history of Bryant Ave has shaped and form it to be what it is today.

 Bryant Ave is a street located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. I am going to be talking about Bryant Ave Street and the history associated with it. I am going to include history that ties into school and home life.”Originally known as South Dodge Street School. The wooden structure was built in 1869 along Wilde and South dodge and it was renamed as Bryant on December 23, 1889″ (Randolph). It was named South Dodge Street School because of where it was located geographically but was renamed after a romantic poet by the name of William Cullen Bryant (Randolph). I’m going to be talking about the history that surrounded this street from 1920-1930. In the middle of the 1920’s Bryant Elementary school adopted the platoon organization which offered students in grades four through eight some classes focusing on specific areas of academics, some of which were taught by teachers specializing in those fields. Bryant was the first building to incorporate this plan, with a library-reading room, music room, art room, industrial arts, sewing and cooking rooms and a gym. The population of the school boomed in the 1920s. In 1926 a new building was being built by Bryant Ave Elementary. In 1930 the first kindergartners enrolled in their new school. There is also a library built and named after the street. It’s called Bryant Library. In December 1924 trustees of the Roslyn Neighborhood Association Library vote to merge the Neighborhood Association library with the Bryant Circulating Library Association. A teacher later said recalling 1923, “I shall never forget my first day at Bryant. We moved in after coming back from a vacation around spring and we were really excited for the new building”

(Maia Eisen). The teacher was describing the excitement she had for working there because it was a challenge everyday. She would have to be in a crowded place with other instructors and they would often lose all their papers and find them weeks later. “In February of 1926, construction of a new brick building was began and completed August of that year” (Maia Eisen). It was designed by a architect named Floyd Naramore and the new Bryant Elementary school is said to have a Georgian style architecture. The reason I believe my sources connect with thesis is because in my first main source I use a lot of information from the school by directly quoting from the article about the infrastructure and remodeling of the school as well as the library named after the street. In my secondary source I talk about the history of the school and the title it has had beforehand due to its geography.

School:  Bryant Elementary school (1920-1930)

Library: Bryant Ave Library (1920-1930)

2 Main Sources:

Eisen, Maia. “History.” History – Bryant Elementary School, 1989, bryantes.seattleschools.org/about/about_bryant/history.

2 Secondary Sources:

Randolph W. Lyon. “Bryant Elementary School.” Encyclopedia Dubuque. June 26, 2010. Carnegie-Stout Library Foundation. Accessed on August 12, 2015 at <http://www.encyclopediadubuque.org/index.php?title=Bryant Elementary School>.

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Bryant Avenue Streetcar Line

While only around for a relatively short period of time, the Bryant Avenue streetcar expanded Minneapolis into a greater metropolitan area by providing accessible transportation for the masses.

Minehaha Creek streetcar bridge, 1948

The late 1800s brought streetcars into the forefront of Minneapolis transportation. The Bryant Avenue streetcar line was electrified in 1890 and initially connected downtown Minneapolis to 38th and Bryant. Subsequent years the Bryant Avenue line began to expand further south. In 1893 the line expanded to 46th and Bryant. In 1911 the line expanded to 50th and Bryant. Finally, the route was extended further down Bryant and even down 50th to access Penn Avenue.

Minneapolis streetcar routes, 1946

By 1927 bus routes were established to connect the Bryant Avenue streetcar to 58th and Lyndale, and in 1947 a connecting bus route connected all the way to 62nd and Penn, the end of Minneapolis city limits.

These connecting bus routes gave an inexpensive and easy way for commuters to access surrounding suburbs from the downtown area, and later vice-versa.

Bryant Avenue streetcar in a residential area, 47th street, 1953

Before the streetcar’s popularity, Minneapolis was primarily centralized to downtown. Post World War II saw a rapid expansion into a greater metropolitan area aided by the expansion of streetcar routes.

While ridership, unfortunately, peaked early in 1920 with 238 million riders, the lasting effects of the Twin Cities streetcars are still apparent. The suburban sprawl caught on rapidly with the aid of streetcars. Businesses began to gain traction on large streetcar intersections with connecting bus lines. 50th and Bryant saw businesses popping up by the early 1930s including common names, like Myhr’s and Wuollet’s bakeries, that still exist today. Now, bus lines maintain routes down Bryant Avenue even though there is no longer a streetcar.

Diers, John W., and Aaron Isaacs. Twin Cities by Trolley the Streetcar Era in Minneapolis and St. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007.
“For Thirty Years, Electric Streetcars Ruled Twin Cities Streets.” MinnPost. March 08, 2016. Accessed December 19, 2018. https://www.minnpost.com/mnopedia/2016/03/thirty-years-electric-streetcars-ruled-twin-cities-streets/.
Kahn, Deborah Morse. “Lynnhursts 50th & Bryant: Once a Streetcar Corner.” Southwest Journal. March 03, 2010. Accessed December 19, 2018. http://www.southwestjournal.com/news/2010/03/lynnhursts-50th-bryant-once-a-streetcar-corner/.
Lileks, James. “9 Things You Didn’t Know about Twin Cities Streetcars.” Star Tribune. July 14, 2017. Accessed December 19, 2018. http://www.startribune.com/9-things-you-didn-t-know-about-twin-cities-streetcars/434510963/.
MnDigLib. “Minnesota Reflections.” Flood on the Minnesota River, St. Peter, Minnesota. Accessed December 19, 2018. https://reflections.mndigital.org/catalog/msn:377#/image/0.
MnDigLib. “Minnesota Reflections.” Flood on the Minnesota River, St. Peter, Minnesota. Accessed December 19, 2018. https://reflections.mndigital.org/catalog/msn:392#/image/0.
Weimann, Kyle, Jeremy Jones, Nicole Doran, and Simon Blenski. Connecting the Midtown Greenway Streetcar to Lake Street Destinations. Report. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota. 2009.

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The American Railroad and Industrialization

Thesis: This exhibit demonstrates that railroads were one of the driving forces behind the growth of the United States during the second American industrialization (1870-1910)

Subject A: The second and third sources of mine show the overall reasoning for the railroads growth in this period. The railroad became the prominent transportation method during this time period. Whether it was for transporting goods, people, or even war supplies, the railroad was very important and beneficial to the people using it at the time. With the railroads importance, the iron and steel required to build the railroad system was an important part of the railroads impact on America.

Subject B: The fifth source of mine gives the size of the american railway system through the years of the second industrial revolution. The numbers state that the railroad system grew from about 30,000 miles of rail in 1860, to an astonishing 254037 miles in 1916. During this 56 year period, the railway system grew to over 8x it’s size. This correlates with my Voyant analysis where some key words across all my sources  included: expansion, new, and united. All these words show the positive impact of the railroad on America, and how it’s impact was viewed.

Subject C: These photos below help show the growth of the railroad system in the United States. The first two photos show some maps of the overall growth of railroads during the early years of the second American Industrial revolution. The third photo is a picture taken during the joining of the transcontinental railroad, a huge project that required a lot of man power, and materials in order to create the railroad. The huge amount of materials needed to create all the rails for the growing railway caused many factories to open up along with numerous jobs to be created. rail-road-1railroad204481.01_1

Bibliography:

Engelman, Ryan. “The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914.” Ushistoryscene.com. Accessed December 08, 2018. http://ushistoryscene.com/article/second-industrial-revolution/.

Source 2:  Fan, Yingling. “The Glory and Contradictions of American Railway Expansion, 1852-1920.” Global Transit Innovations. March 30, 2018. Accessed December 08, 2018. https://globaltransitblog.wordpress.com/2017/12/30/the-glory-and-contradictions-of-american-railway-expansion-1852-1920/.

Source 3:   Catton, Bruce. The Centennial History of the Civil War / Bruce Catton. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961.

Source 4: Russell, Andrew J. “The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History.” Historical Context: The Global Effect of World War I | Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Accessed December 08, 2018. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/content/official-photograph-golden-spike-ceremony-1869.

Source 5:  “Railroad History, An Overview Of The Past.” American-Rails.com. Accessed December 08, 2018. https://www.american-rails.com/railroad-history.html.

Source 6: https://voyant-tools.org/?corpus=04671cfda396ef84aa4d11a094997177

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The Agricultural Revolution

Thesis: The Industrial Revolution could not have taken place without the Agricultural Revolution and the ability to produce food on a mass scale.

Early Advances in Farming:

This is a drawing of a horse powered thresher. It was tools like this that allowed farmers to produce at vastly greater quantities. This meant the work of a few men could do what it used take hundreds of men to do. It was an incredibly revolutionary way of farming and production of crops increased at an incredible rate. People no longer had to farm food for themselves, because they could rely on other people to produce large amounts.


My second source is an article from Britannica that states, “Agricultural revolution, gradual transformation of the traditional agricultural system that began in Britain in the 18th century. Aspects of this complex transformation, which was not completed until the 19th century included the reallocation of land ownership to make farms more compact and an increased investment in technical improvements, such as new machinery, better drainage, scientific methods of breeding, and experimentation with new crops and systems of crop rotation.” (Agricultural revolution). This is important because it states multiple ways in which agricultural techniques were improved upon. This again supports my argument that fewer people were able to do massive amounts of work. It gave many people more free time to pursue other endeavors and that is exactly what ended up happening. People were also free to move into urban settings that were not suitable to grow its own food.

This timeline shows just how quickly agricultural techniques were improving in just the span of 100 years. As you can see, the population growth of the United States had increased 5 times in the same time period. This would leave me to believe that better farming techniques could support a much larger population, with less people doing the actual farm work.

Impact on workforce:

If you take a look at this graph, you’ll notice a couple of things. The two most important colors to pay attention to are green (percent of people working on farms) and blue (percentage of people working in manufacturing). Beginning from 1800, people are drastically leaving farms and at the same time they are drastically moving into manufacturing jobs. We know from other data that global population growth was rising dramatically, so how is it possible that fewer people were working on farms?

Effect on Urbanization:

This is another one of my primary sources and it’s probably my favorite. If you take a look at this picture, you notice there are smoke stacks as far as the eye can see. These are all factories that employ hundreds if not thousands of people. What this picture tells me is that some how all of these people need to be fed. It was massive agricultural production that sustained this level of production as factories produced more and more. This requires more and more people and it was food security that allowed this kind of production to take place.

Lastly, an article from the University of Wisconsin Green Bay states, “The Industrial Revolution was made possible due to the many changes and innovations in the agriculture industry. Major Contributors such as Jethro Tull and Lord Townshend found innovative ways to utilize the land and animals alongside new agricultural machines from Inventors, Robert Bakewell and James Hargreaves. Processes like Lord Townshend’s crop rotation and Bakewell’s inbreeding methods allowed for increase in food production; further with all the extra crops, inventions such as the ‘Spinning Jenny’ and the Cotton Gin allowed for the replacement of agricultural workers because machines could do more of the work. With a rising population and a large, cheap available work force the Industrial Revolution was made possible. Fewer men were involved in agriculture, which meant that more would find employment in other industries further driving the Industrial Revolution. Though the many inventions and inventors contributed to further drive the Agricultural Revolution, it is also not limited to these factors alone; many other influences helped drive the agricultural revolution, and ultimately the Industrial Revolution.” This article basically summarizes the point I am trying to make. We often hear so much about the Industrial Revolution and all of the great technology that came from it, but we almost never hear about the Agricultural Revolution and its impact on modern society.

Works Cited


Boundless. “Boundless World History.” Lumen Learning, Lumen, courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-worldhistory/chapter/the-agricultural-revolution/.

Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Agricultural Revolution.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 4 Dec. 2015, http://www.britannica.com/topic/agricultural-revolution.

Desonie, Dana. “Revolutions in Human Population Growth.” CK-12 Foundation, CK-12 Foundation, 23 Aug. 2018, http://www.ck12.org/earth-science/revolutions-in-human-population-growth/lesson/Revolutions-in-Human-Population-Growth-MS-ES/.

“Rooftops And Smokestacks Of Factories | Industrial Revolution.” PBS LearningMedia, http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/51632462-industrial-revolution/rooftops-and-smokestacks-of-factories-industrial-revolution/.

“Rooftops And Smokestacks Of Factories | Industrial Revolution.” PBS LearningMedia, http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/51632462-industrial-revolution/rooftops-and-smokestacks-of-factories-industrial-revolution/.

“The Future of Hunger: Part 1.” American Society of Animal Science, http://www.asas.org/taking-stock/blog-post/taking-stock/2012/02/01/the-future-of-hunger-part-1.

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