The French Revolution and Its Repercussions

This exhibit demonstrates that the French Revolution was a key point in history that marked the beginning of crucial changes that shaped our current world.

Before the French Revolution, Europe, and especially France, ruled as a monarchy (most of the times an absolute one) as a form of government. Moreover, in France, the society operated under the principle of feudalism, where people were classified under three level of social hierarchy, the clergy, the nobility, then the commoners, and that the royalty (kings and queens) was part of a category on its own. This classification enhanced the inequalities among people, where the upper social classes would benefit of more privileges and rights unlike the last class in which people would live depending on the upper classes in misery with only a few rights given to them.

Section I

Source 1 (Social Media)

This pin explains briefly how the principles of feudalism worked in France several centuries ago, with the four distinct social classes. It shows the big notion of dependency and loyalty among the classes, where each of them would have a role to fulfill for the nearest class in exchange of services. The peasants, being the least powerful, yet biggest group, were the ones who triggered the start of the French Revolution.

Source 2 (Images)

IMG_20170510_082647889

This picture of the execution of the king Louis XVI perfectly demonstrates that the period of absolute monarchy along with the dominance of royalty on the rest of the population is over. People are fighting for their rights, and from now on, those who have the power are the people. This event marks the beginning of democracy in France.

Source 3 (Time)

The Declaration of the Rights of Man is undoubtedly, one of the most important thing that came out due to the French Revolution. It was passed by the National Constituent Assembly of France in August 1789, and is linked with historical figures such as Champion de Cicé, Mirabeau, Mounier, or Lafayette. One of America’s Founding Fathers, Thomas Jefferson, also influenced the declaration as he was working with Lafayette.

This declaration also finds its signifiance a couple of centuries later, in 1948, a short period after World War II, when the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. This universal declaration marked the recognition of human rights in which all human beings are entitled with at birth.

Section II

Source 4 (Maps)

europe_map_1800

This map of Europe in 1800, so shortly after the French Revolution ended, depicts how kingdoms and monarchies were still widely present in the neighboring countries of France (Portugal, Spain, Great Britain, Prussia, etc) while France just became a republic. Throughout the decades, a shifting will occur with kingdoms and empires falling down, allowing smaller and dependant countries to be born as what we can see today.

Source 5 (Words)

téléchargement

The Voyant analysis of the book The Age of Revolution by Eric Hobsbawm suggests a large use of words such as “revolution”, “france”, “class”, “society”, “poor”, “bourgeois”, or “power” which connect well to the idea of a hierarchy of power and the different classes in the French society I highlighted earlier on.

Section II

Source 6 (Numbers)

At the end of this working paper, there are relevant statistics that are worth to be looked at. The different charts all share something in common, which is a more abrupt growth of whatever economic measurements done for the purpose of the paper. This increase could also be explained by the industrial revolution which began to take place around the same time as the French Revolution, however it is fairly acceptable to conclude that some effects of the French Revolution, such as the change of the form of government, strongly contributed to economic alterations throughout Europe.

 

By the end of the French Revolution, a new phase came out where absolute monarchies were mainly left out to the detriment of democracy which gave the power to people, there were no longer recognized social classes which meant that everyone was equal under the law, freedom of religion was established, and a declaration of human rights was adopted. These effects, which are still up to date to this day, show the fundamental event that represented the French Revolution into taking part of building the current world we are currently living in.

Bibliography

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Child Labor and Mortality Rates in the Industrial Revolution

Struggling economies and the Industrial Revolution caused higher child labor rates and child mortality rates. When economies have struggled in the past, societies have gone to extremes to survive. Unfortunately some of these extremes involved putting young children at risk, not only risking their future, but even sometimes their life. Families had to take their children out of school to help work in the factories so they could afford to keep food on the tables. The Industrial Revolution took part in child labor because it caused the economy to struggle before it began to thrive. This is not a current issue in America’s society today, however, in countries all over the world child labor is still existent due to their extreme economic circumstances. childlabor-19

Block 1

My gap minder map showed the correlation of Income per person and Life expectancy, it is easy to see the decrease in both during the late 1800’s.  With the data it provided me I was able to interpret how the correlation between the time frame and jumps in the graph it correlated with Americas Industrial Revolution. The big jump also provided me information that not only was the economy struggling, but also the jobs that were forced upon all ages of people were quite dangerous and risky. In correlation to the graph the statistics  show that the deaths occurred more often is children rather than adults. “50% of child Labor was involved in hazardous and dangerous work” (1800’s Child Labor in America). A lot of the children were killed because they would fall asleep and fall into the factory machines. Not only were children working with dangerous machines, but they were forced to work so hard that they were sleep deprived and that is known as a cruel form of torture. The industrial part of this revolution and the machines involved created more damage to the children than the physical labor. ” The health of the children suffered working in back-breaking jobs in dark, gloomy environments with poor ventilation. They suffered from lung, ear and eye infections.” (1800’s Child Labor in America). This photo is of the Breaker Boys who worked in the Coal mines. This was also another very dangerous jobs that created high child mortality rates  4a07285_150pxbecause they would be working with explosives. Another factor that made all industrial jobs more dangerous for children is until you are an adult your brain isn’t fully developed for children tend to struggle more with making good judgement decisions.

Block 2

In the book Child Labor in America it says “Some factories had whipping rooms for little workers who became lazy. Children caught talking or giggling saw their wages cut. During the long days and nights, cold water splashed in the children’s faces to wake them up” (Mofford, Page 7). This relates to how child labor was not only forced upon these children but they were tortured with deprivation of sleep which caused them to fall ill and not be able to work at all. I used Voyant to pick apart a journal on the industrial revolution and the three words and that were used very frequently were Child, Labor, and economic. This proves that not only are industrial revolutions involved in the practice of child labor but it comes from the economic struggles of a society. I found an article through twitter relating to the current day child labor struggles in Pakistan. This also proves how economic struggles directly relate to child labor which relates to child mortality rates.

In conclusion Child Labor and mortality rates are caused by Struggling economies such as the Industrial Revolution. The solution to this issue is to reach out to current day struggling economies and offer our help. Although our economy today is not the greatest, we need to be thankful for what we have and do whatever we can to make help the people living in less fortunate economies.C-BzjIEXsAICdP9

 

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The years leading up to The American Revolution

Thesis – This exhibit demonstrates how economic tensions between Great Britain and the colonies lead to the start of the American Revolution.

 

After the French and Indian War ended, Great Britain was in great debt. England’s parliament imposed that the colonies help pay for the debt because they needed the British’s help in winning the Seven Years War. New taxes and acts were passed to help the British crown repay their debt and England was trying to govern these new laws overseas. However, the colonies were given no representation which ultimately created tensions and thus came the road to revolution.  

Part 1 – Sources 4 (numbers) and 5 (words)

What were the taxes and acts Britain was making the colonies pay for?

After the Seven Years War, England’s debt almost doubled from £75 million in 1754 to £133 million in 1763. During the mid-1700’s, Britain imposed numerous taxes and acts for the thirteen colonies. All of these different regulations started to make the colonists very agitated and become disloyal to Britain. This trend in taxing the colonies started with the Currency Act of 1764 which forbade the colonists from printing paper currency. Next came the Sugar Act of 1764 which raised taxes on imports for sugar that were coming from the West Indies. This lowered the duty to 3 pence, in an effort to make the British sugar industry competitive without completely wrecking the export trade. In the year 1765, the Quartering Act was created that made the colonists house and feed British soldiers if they needed a place to stay. Also during this year was the Stamp Act. This particular act required tax stamps to be put on several different documents including marriage licenses and newspapers to name a few. For this act, the money was to cover about £60,000 of the £200,000 that was required to station troops in the colonies. The Townshend Act imposed duties on 72 different imported goods. An estimated 90 percent of all tea consumed in the colonies was of the Dutch variety so colonists could enjoy tea at a cheaper price. In 1774, the Tea Act was created due to the British East India Company having financial struggles. This act was to reduce the massive surplus of tea the company had in their hands. With all of these acts and taxes England was created, it was inevitable that the colonists were eventually going to rebel because of the “no taxation without representation” issue. The colonies didn’t ask Britain to tax them. It was just forced upon them. However, there was a disagreement between the colonies and England of how they were treating each other. Each side had different views.  

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Voyant analysis

 

Part 2 – Source 3 (maps)

Trade between the Mother Country and the colonies

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Map of trade routes between the different continents

Throughout this time period, trade was a major part for England in keeping a close relationship with their thirteen colonies. In the image shown below is the trade routes between England, the colonies and Africa. This was known as the Triangular Trade. However, England imposed different regulations on the colonies trading. One included that ships could not leave colonial ports without a signed permission slip on a stamped piece of paper. Colonists grew to be very leery of sailing without the written permission. Additionally, England viewed the colonies as a source for raw materials including fur, lumber, sugar, tobacco and iron but also a market for Britain’s goods such as tea and silks. This mercantile system lead the colonies to be in great debt while England was creating a profit. For this unfortunate situation for the colonies, often times colonial merchants would resort to illegal trading with other countries so they wouldn’t have to deal with the regulations England put on their trade deals. With all of the stamps, embargoes and riots taking place, the colonists decided to halt their trade with England. This was a sudden halt but the colonies were prepared to bear the burden of not trading with the Mother Country in order to obtain their rights as human beings.

Part 3 – Sources 1 (time), 2 (images) and 6 (social media)

The colonies reaction to England’s new policies and the road to revolution

feathering

“Tarring and Feathering” illustration

Since the end of the French and Indian War, there was many unsettling aspects of economics in the thirteen colonies. With England’s win in the war, they had a certain power over the colonies and treated the citizens as “peasants” which lead to the increase in imperial policies. Britain’s mentality of treating the colonists as peasants lead them to create strict measures of control and taxation. This essentially made the colonists not have the same rights as an English man. The central issue that caused the colonists to react like they did was no taxation without representation. From the start of the series of acts in 1764, the colonies grew in opposition and began to revolt. The new attitude from the colonies began when the Stamp Act was created. People’s reaction to this act ranged from boycotting to riots. In this letter written from a man named Archibald Hinshelwood and he explains the opposition towards the Stamp Act. He described that colonists have proceeded to violence because of their disagreement with this act. Now, this was just one reaction to one specific act. There was a form of rebellion called “tarring and feathering”  shown in the image above. This was created by Bostonians and it was intended to humiliate the victim but also cause pain. Often times, the victim would be covered in hot tar, then smothered in feathers, marched around town and then hung. After the Stamp Act, it was common to target British government employees in the colonies. This type of rebellion was also used in opposition to the Townshend Act and the Tea Act. One major event that lead to the start of the American Revolution in protest to taxation was the Boston Tea Party.

pinterest.png

Pinterest pin on the Boston Tea Party

On December 16th, 1773, Sam Adams and the Sons of Liberty boarded three ships in the Boston Harbor that were filled with tea. These men were disguised as Mohawk Indians and threw 342 chests of tea valued at about £10,000 into the Boston Harbor. That night, the harbor became one giant tea pot. As a result of this event, the Coercive Acts of 1774 were created to punish the colonies, Boston in particular, for their resistance to abide by the acts England forced on the colonies.

As a result of all of these reactions from the colonists, the road to revolution evolved and thus, The American Revolution began.

 

Works Cited –

1. Time (a dated source) – primary source

Hinshelwood, Archibald. “A report on reaction to the Stamp Act, 1765.” 22 Mar.      1765. The Gilder Lehman Institute of American History, The Gilder Lehrman      Institute of American History Reserved, http://www.gilderlehrman.org/      history-by-era/road-revolution/resources/report-reaction-stamp-act-1765.      Accessed 6 May 2017. Letter.

Link: https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/road-revolution/resources/report-reaction-stamp-act-1765

2. Images (a picture) – primary source (physical book)

Unkown. A new method of macarony making, as practised at Boston. 1774.      Library of Congress, United States Copyright Office, http://www.loc.gov/      pictures/item/2004673300/. Accessed 2 May 2017.

Link: http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2004673300/

This picture is found in the book cited below. 

Collier, Christopher, and James Lincoln Collier. The American Revolution.      Tarrytown, Benchmark Books, 1998.

3. Maps (a GIS map) – secondary source

National Geographic Society. “Colonial Trade Routes and Goods.” National      Geographic, National Geographic Society, http://www.nationalgeographic.org/      photo/colonial-trade/. Accessed 6 May 2017. Map.

Link: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/photo/colonial-trade/

4.  Numbers (statistics about your topic) – secondary source

“The Seven Years War to the American Revolution.” Tax History Project, Tax      Analysts, http://www.taxhistory.org/www/website.nsf/Web/THM1756?OpenDocument.      Accessed 6 May 2017.

Link: http://www.taxhistory.org/www/website.nsf/Web/THM1756?OpenDocument

5Words (a voyant analysis of a text) – secondary source

Kelly, Martin. “Causes of the American Revolution.” ThoughtCo., ThoughtCo.com,      30 Mar. 2017, http://www.thoughtco.com/causes-of-the-american-revolution-104860.      Accessed 6 May 2017.

Link: https://www.thoughtco.com/causes-of-the-american-revolution-104860

Link to analysis: http://voyant-tools.org/?corpus=a64ae05d83f957bf1d3d5e2ff19bff5f

6. Social Media (a post about your topic) – primary source

Currier, Nathaniel. The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor. 1846, Newsela.

Link to social media post: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/728246202214817000/

Link to primary source: https://newsela.com/articles/historic-news-bostonteaparty/id/17456/

Other sources used:

Werner, Kirk D., editor. The American Revolution. San Diego, Greenhaven Press,      Inc., 2000. Turning Points in World History.

Faragher, John Mack, editor. The Encyclopedia of Colonial and Revolutionary      America. New York, De Capo Express, 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Civil War leads to end of slavery

Thesis:

This exhibit shows how the Civil War led to the abolishment of slavery in United States.

Subject A: Source 1, 2

Maps (Secondary); Numbers (Primary)

Before the Civil War began it was very common for people to own slaves. In fact, by 1860 there was roughly 1.2 million slaves dispatched throughout the United States. Some plantations would own anywhere from 150 -250 slaves at a time. During the Civil War roughly 180,000 slaves served in the Union Army.

history map

These two sources supports my thesis because it gives insight on the number of slaves and the spread of slavery throughout the United States in 1860 before the Civil War. Combined with other sources, it helps to show proof that slavery was an issue before the Civil War, and that during and afterwards, slavery became almost nonexistent.

 

Mullen, Lincoln. “These Maps Reveal How Slavery Expanded Across the United States.” Smithsonian.com. May 15, 2014. Accessed April 28, 2017. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/maps-reveal-slavery-expanded-across-united-states-180951452/.

Subject B: Source 2,3,4, 5

Time (Primary); Image (Primary); Social Media (Secondary); Words (Primary)

The Civil War began in 1860 and lasted until roughly 1865. During that time, there were many different events that led to the abolishment of slavery. Lincoln being elected as President in 1860 played a major role in the abolishment of slavery. In 1862 Lincoln issued the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. However, in 1863 the Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect, effectively freeing any slaves in Confederate states in hopes to convince Confederate states to return to the Union. Throughout the Civil War it was also declared that slaves who acted as soldiers would return home emancipated. In 1865, the 13th amendment was passed, completely abolishing slavery.

emancipation

These four sources support my thesis because they show multiple events and laws passed leading to the abolishment of slavery that happened during or because of the Civil War. Without these events, the abolishment of slavery would’ve been prolonged. Many of the laws put in place were due to the Union wanting to try to switch Confederate states over to their side.

“Emancipation.” National Museum of American History. August 26, 2013. Accessed April 28, 2017. http://americanhistory.si.edu/changing-america-emancipation-proclamation-1863-and-march-washington-1963/1863/emancipation.

Umansky, David. CivilWar@Smithsonian Timeline. Accessed April 28, 2017. http://www.civilwar.si.edu/timeline.html.

Jacobin. “The Civil War inaugurated a titanic revolution that brought slavery to an end and broke the planter class.https://t.co/ikJZGUuDIk.” Twitter. April 10, 2017. Accessed April 28, 2017. https://twitter.com/jacobinmag/status/851229082109005824.

Levine, Bruce C. Half slave and half free: the roots of the Civil War. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005.

 

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The Impact of Islam in the Iberian Peninsula

The Impact of Islam in the Iberian Peninsula

It remains clear that the period of Islamic rule had a lasting impact on Spain as a nation. The Moors, who derived largely from Arabia and Northern Africa, ruled huge swathes of Southern Spain for seven centuries, and had a widening impact on Spanish culture. This exhibit demonstrates that the Muslim rule of Medieval Iberia has heavily influenced Spain’s language, intellectual culture, and architecture.

Subject A: Language 

Words/ Secondary 

It is often assumed that Spanish was derived solely from Latin but when the Muslim Moors invaded they brought Arabic. Language is a living thing and it often borrows words from other languages. This had a profound impact on the language of Spanish during this time with many words in Spanish having Arabic roots. Both of the languages existed at the same time during the seven centuries that the Moors had control of Spain and by 1492, when the last Muslims were expelled from Granada, over 4000 words had become apart of the Spanish language.

Here is a short list of words that have Arabic roots and are in Spanish. (I speak Spanish and I was quite surprised how many words that I use on a daily basis at home have roots in Arabic)

aceite — oil, aceituna — olive, adobe — adobe, aduana — customs (as at a border)
ajedrez — chess, Alá — Allah, alacrán — scorpion, albacora — albacore, albahaca — basil, alberca — tank, swimming pool, alcalde — mayor, álcali — alkali, alcatraz — pelican, alcázar — fortress, palace, alcoba — bedroom, alcove, alcohol — alcohol, alfil — bishop (in chess), alfombra — carpet, algarroba — carob, algodón — cotton, algoritmo — algorithm, almacén — storage, almanaque — almanac, almirante — admiral, almohada — pillow, alquiler — rent, alquimia — alchemy, amalgama — amalgam, añil — indigo, arroz — rice, asesino — assassin, atún — tuna, ayatolá — ayatollah, azafrán — saffron, azar — chance, azúcar — sugar, azul — blue, balde — bucket, barrio — district, berenjena — eggplant, burca — burqa, café — coffee, cero — zero, chivo — billy goat, cifra — cifra, Corán — Koran, cuscús — couscous, dado — die, espinaca — spinach, fez — fez, fulano — what’s-his-name, gacela— gazelle, guitarra — guitar, hachís — hashish, harén — harem, hasta — until, imán — imam, islam — Islam, jaque — check (in chess), jaque mate — checkmate, jirafa — giraffe, laca — lacquer, lila — lilac, lima — lime, limón — lemon, loco — crazy, macabro — macabre, marfil — marble, ivory, masacre — massacre, masaje — massage, máscara — mask, mazapán — marzipan, mezquita — mosque, momia — mummy, mono — monkey, muslim — muslim, naranja — orange, ojalá — I hope, God willing, olé — bravo, paraíso — paradise, ramadán — Ramadan, rehén — hostage, rincón — corner, nook, sandía — watermelon, sofá — sofa, sorbete — sherbet, talco — talc, tarea — task, tarifa — tariff, tártaro — tartar, taza — cup

Maps/ Secondary

With the Muslim invasion of the Spain, many cities were created and named in the Arabic language. After the Spanish reclaimed their territory and pushed out the Moors in 1492, many places in Spain retained their Arabic names.

 

Islamic Spain and the Reconquista

Islamic Spain and the Reconquista

For example: Wadi I-hidjara — Guadalajara, Madjrit — Madrid, Barshiluna —  Barcelona

 

Subject B: Architecture

The architectural influence of the Muslim Moors remains the most recognizable aspect of their control over Spain because they practically monopolized the craft of building and ornamentation. This means that they left their style of buildings all over Christian Spain after they were pushed out. Traits of Islamic architecture can be found in Spain with, slender columns, horseshoe arches, cupolas, and colorful buildings.

Image/ Primary 

Here is an example of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, it was an Islamic mosque converted into a Christian cathedral in the thirtieth century after the decline of the Moors which began to be pushed out of Spain and the Iberian Peninsula.

The Church retained the overall architectural characteristics of the Mosque and was expanded in the following centuries after it was converted.

Link to 360 tour: https://mezquita-catedraldecordoba.es/

 

01_150917_02_005-1.0x564.jpgdescubre_edificio_2-1.0x564.jpg

 

Time/ Dated source/ Primary

Here is an example of a Fresco that was in the Church of San Baudelio de Berlanga. The Church was located between the Islamic and Christian lands in the twelfth century in Spain. Islamic Art influenced much of the Frescos during the time because Islamic court art was known and admired by inhabitants of the Christian kingdoms for its costly materials and unparalleled craft.

 

Camel

Subject C: Intellectual culture

Numbers 

The Islamic contributions to Spanish intellectual culture were advancements in astronomy, mathematics and the variety of architectural forms. The Moors dominated the intellectual life of Spain during their rule and had a profound impact on European civilization, which accepted many of their ideas. One of the biggest advancements the Moors brought to the Iberian Peninsula and ultimately Western Europe were the Arabic Numbers and Zero. These advancements in Spain not only changed mathematics in Spain it also changed mathematics all over Europe via the scholars that studied in Muslim Spain and returned to France and England.

Hindu Arabic numerals

For example, four thousand, three hundred and sixty five in the new system was written 4,365 and the value of the digits means:

1000 | 100 | 10 | 1
   4 |   3 |  6 | 5

The same number in Roman numerals was written MMMMCCCLXVc (4 × 1000 + 3 × 100 + 50 + 10 + 5). It was quite difficult to perform calculations with such a cumbersome system.

Social Media/ Primary 

The astrolabe moved with Islam through North Africa into Muslim Spain where it was introduced to European culture through Christian monasteries in northern Spain. The earliest astrolabes used in Europe were imported from Muslim Spain with Latin words engraved alongside the original Arabic. These advancements brought to Spain via the Moors contributed to the Spanish intellectual culture and Navigation.

 

 

Updated Bibliography

  1. (Image/ Primary 360 Virtual Tour) “Conjunto Monumental Mezquita Catedral de Córdoba.” El edificio. Accessed April 28, 2017. https://mezquita-catedraldecordoba.es/descubre-el-monumento/el-edificio/.
  2. (Words/ Secondary) Erichsen, Gerald. “You’ll Be Surprised by the Spanish Words That Came From Arabic.” ThoughtCo. March 02, 2017 . Accessed May 10, 2017. https://www.thoughtco.com/spanishs-arab-connection-3078180.
  3. (Maps/Secondary) “Islamic Spain and the Reconquista.” Islamic Spain and the Reconquista. Accessed April 28, 2017. http://explorethemed.com/reconquista.asp.
  4. (Time/ Primary) “Camel | Work of Art | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art.” The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Accessed April 28, 2017. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/61.219/.
  5. (Numbers/ Secondary) Bourne, Murray. “Math of the Moors.” Intmathcom RSS. February 07, 2007. Accessed May 10, 2017. http://www.intmath.com/blog/mathematics/math-of-the-moors-535.
  6. (Social Media/Primary) Heritage, Islamic. “Al-Andalus: The Orient in the West.” Pinterest. April 05, 2012. Accessed May 10, 2017. https://www.pinterest.com/pin/273804852315432522/.

 

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Napoleonic Wars: The Peninsular Campaign

Historians have long studied the Napoleonic Wars to understand the significance of the battles that took place. Many have looked back and pointed to the Peninsular Campaign that took place in Spain and Portugal as a pivotal point in the Napoleonic Wars. Modern historians have also pointed out that the guerrilla warfare and popular uprisings against the French occupation set the tone for modern politics in the Iberian peninsula in the 20th century.

For our purposes here, the Peninsular wars were important for several reasons. First, the unrest and the British support of resistance caused Napoleon to invest heavily in putting down the resistance there. This caused a large portion of forces to be tied up in essentially useless police action. Second and perhaps most important, the resources and military leadership which was tied up in Spain and Portugal was unavailable to Napoleon when he decided to invade Russia in 1812.

Block 1: Sir John Moore and the Escape at Corunna

Pictured below, Sir John Moore became leader of a British expedition to Portugal in 1808. After a short campaign, Moore realized that he and his forces were being drawn into a trap by French commanders. He and his men then conducted a prolonged retreat towards the Port of Coruna. The retreated and mostly rear-guard action enabled most of the British forces to embark safely at Coruna. However, Sir John himself was killed defending the town while his men boarded ships. As discussed in this short history of the Peninsular War, the long march and brilliant skirmish engagements sealed in British public opinion the prowess of Moore and helped shatter the image of invincibility of the French fighting forces.

Lawrence, Thomas, 1769-1830; Sir John Moore

coruna

Block 2: The Cost of War

A Voyant Analysis of Eric Howbawm’s The Age of Revolution, highlights some of the issues that France and the world would have been considering during the rule of Napoleon as Emperor of France. The snippet below shows both the dominance of the idea of a revolution as well as a prevalence of issues like class and society mostly centered around the powerhouses in the Europe at the time, France and Britain. Many people of both nations were carried along on waves of nationalism which caused funding for the military to uphold “national honor” to increase despite the loses in the ongoing wars on the continent.

Voyant

According to Necrometrics, an online amalgamation of differing counts of the Cost of War throughout history, over 3,105,500 total deaths resulted because of the Napoleonic Wars. Of that total, 1,200,000 were French while British casualties (both Navy and Army combined) were 243,000.

The significance of these figures can be seen by looking at the total number of French troops stationed in Spain and Portugal for a large portion of the war. In 1810-1811, over 300,000 French troops were located throughout the Iberian Peninsula. This caused a large problem in the rest of the empire when one considers that Napoleons total invasion force for Russia in 1812 was between 450,000 and 650,000 men.

Block 3: Napoleon in Retrospect

During his final years on the island of St. Helena, Napoleon kept a journal of his daily activities as well as penning books on his campaigns. On March 3, 1817, he had this to say, “In spite of all the libels, I have no fear whatever about my fame. Posterity will do me justice. The truth will be known; and the good I have done will be compared with the faults I have committed. I am not uneasy as to the result.” Napoleon would go on to remark that if he had succeeded he would have been regarded as the greatest man who ever lived.

Dennis Porter, in his review of the French historian Stendahl, would remark on the love shown by that historian to Napoleon. According to Stendahl, Napoleon was one of the most outstanding historical figures, “the greatest man since Caesar.” Viewed in retrospect today, there is no doubt about his military genius. Perhaps historians today might remark more on his ability to organize and train his troops than on his military battles (although they are significant). However, there can be no doubt that Napoleon’s downfall was sealed by the failed campaign in Russia. As has been shown above, the 300,000 men committed to Spain and Portugal to contain the British and the popular uprisings there could have provided a massive swing in the Russian campaign. For this reason, I believe that Napoleon’s downfall was not begun with the Russian campaign but started much earlier with his occupation of the Iberian Peninsula.

 

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The power behind the Industrial Revolution

Thesis:

This exhibit demonstrates how the Industrial Revolution was a pivotal point where industrialization and urbanization started to thrive.

Subject A: Source 1

Social Media (Secondary)

This is a post from Pinterest that shows a picture of James Watt steam engine and the Author Robert Jr. Geballa discusses how James Watt’s engine changed the Industrial Revolution and the world forever. James Watt design on this engine made it possible to stay away from high-pressure steam and making his design safer and the highest quality steam engine on the market. This article also talks about how the Industrial Revolution “embodies many of humanity greatest characteristics”  This post supports my thesis because this article shows that during Industrial Revolution there were brilliant inventors like James Watt inventing new machines to help change the world.

 

http://someinterestingfacts.net/industrial-revolution-facts-and-information/

Pinterest Page

Subject B: Source 2

Map (Primary)

http://www.culturalresources.com/MP_Muir24.html

My second source shows how the Industrial Revolution drove people into the cities where most jobs were going to be located. This image shows how the Industrial Revolution changed population over a 200-year span. As you can see on the left side, England was spread out through their entire country with some areas with larger amounts of people before the Industrial Revolution. An after the Industrial Revolution, you can see how the world had changed; most of the people have flooded to the cities where the new jobs have been created.

Subject C: Source 3

Time (Dated Source) (Primary)

https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/british/brit-5.html#skip_menu

http://www.sahistory.org.za/article/timeline-events-and-inventions-during-industrial-revolution

Steam Boat Picture

My third source shows how the Industrial Revolution made it easier for people travel further distances. The link above shows a picture of John Fitch’s steamboat drawing. The idea behind the steamboat was to use the same kind of design that James Watt did with his steam engine but use it on a boat to move faster. During this period, there wasn’t a piston steam engine in America. Due to America splitting from Britain, they would not export any new technology to a former colony, and John Fitch came up with the idea to design a new version of the steam engine. My second link shows a timeline of the most frequent events and invention during the Industrial Revolution. The timeline shows how Industrial Revolution has shaped the outcome our world.

Subject D: Source 4

Image (Primary)

https://www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3c10376/

Steam Engine Picture

Project Pic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

My fourth source is an image of John Watt’s steam engine. What you can see from the picture is the gears and the pump mechanism for his steam engine. What set Mr. Watts steam engine aside from the others was his design. Mr. Watts steam engine didn’t have to be run by high-pressure steam, so it was significantly safer than other steam engines. This steam engine was built to run faster and help mine materials faster than other steam engines. The increased availability of these new raw materials made building more complex machines and invention easier to be built. This source supports my thesis because it shows that these new designs helped shape the world like it is today.

Subject E: Source 5

Numbers (Secondary)

http://voyant-tools.org/?corpus=8965dbb5f0943b52ee1b976fabb31b0a

My fifth source is an encyclopedia with information about the Industrial Revolution in voyant which talks about the main events that took place during the Industrial Revolution. This encyclopedia talks briefly about all the key events that occurred during the Industrial Revolution and how it helped changed the world. A major event that this encyclopedia talks about is the railroads being invented a how it changed the way we look at our world. As railroads were built a large demand for more workers spiked almost instantaneously. There was a huge demand for workers not only to help build railroads but to mine coal out of the ground which was a need to fuel the trains. This source supports my thesis because it shows how certain inventions like the railroad made traveling easier and countries that had railroad became more powerful because they could now move objects across their country even easier. For example ammunition or troops for war preparations, food, clothing, and transportation.

Subject F: Source 6

Words (Book) (Secondary)

Industrial revolution in world history

This book is by Peter Stearns, and Peter quotes “The Industrial Revolution was the single most important development in human history over the past three centuries, and it continues to shape the contemporary world.” In this book, Peter talks about how the Industrial revolution changed our world with new methods and organizations for producing goods. He states that the Industrial Revolution altered the way we live, how we live and where we live. This book can offer different perspectives of the Industrial Revolution and its impact on the world. This source supports my thesis because it shows why Industrial Revolution was the single most important development in human history.

Book cover

My sources support my thesis by showing how different inventions made the Industrial Revolution a pivotal point in our period where industrialization and urbanization started to thrive.

Bibliography:

Source 1: Social Media (Secondary)

Geballa, Robert Jr. “Industrial Revolution Facts and Information.” Pinterest. N.p., 06 Oct. 2014. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/375346950167722067/

Source 2: Map (Primary)

Muir, Ramsay. “– Culture 4.0 Historical Maps.” England before (1701) and after (1911) the Industrial Revolution. N.p., 2000. Web. 26 Apr. 2017.

http://www.culturalresources.com/MP_Muir24.html

Source 3: Time (Data Source) (Primary)

“John Bull and Uncle Sam: Four Centuries of British-American RelationsInventions and Discoveries.” Inventions and Discoveries: Four Centuries of British-American Relations. N.p., 22 July 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

Sahoboss. “Timeline: Events and Inventions during the Industrial Revolution.”Sahoboss. N.p., 20 Mar. 2015. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/british/brit-5.html#skip_menu

Source 4: Image (Primary)

Robison, John. “Steam Engine – Mr. Watt’s Double Steam Engine from His Specification of 1782.” The Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

https://www.loc.gov/resource/cph.3c10376/

Source 5: Numbers (Secondary)

Gale. “Industrial Revolution” Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World. Encyclopedia.com, n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2017.

http://voyant-tools.org/?corpus=8965dbb5f0943b52ee1b976fabb31b0a

Source 6: Words (Book) (Secondary)

Stearns, Peter N. The Industrial Revolution in World History. Boulder: WestviewPress, 1993. Print.

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