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How the American Revolution shaped America

Through out time there was many events that happened that shaped the world as we know it today. one of those many events that happened was the American Revolution, of which was the result of the war. Where the thirteen colonies gained independence from Britain. In a New York Times article they say  “Yet the Patriots’ battle for independencec was, to the British crown, not war but rebellion.” (Source 1)  The british didnt quite under stand why at the time why the colonies were doing this, but as time went on it became very clear to them.

(Source One)

In an article on Info base, they talk about the first shot of the war being called the shot heard around the world. This is what its mostly what people think about when they think hear the Revolutionary war. In the article they say “On April 16, Dr. Joseph Warren sent Paul Revere to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams that Gage might be planning to arrest them.” (Source two) This was the beginning of the war, where it all started. From this point on the war went on until 1776. The war was the first big event that changed how we go about things and it shaped america to what it is now.

 

When the end of the war happened, it was in 1776. Infobase says “As 1776 opened, the British focus for the hostilities shifted abruptly to the South.” (Source three) Later on in the article they talk about the evacuation of boston and the failure in Canada. They finally signed the Declaration of indepenence on july 4th. Then on July 8th it was read to the people. Although it did take a long time for the troops to pull out of all the areas.

 

Even though the war was kind of a smaller event. It was A big event, this is what they teach us in high school, because it was what shaped america to what it is as now. The way they had to fight for what to they wanted is how it shaped it is now.

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The Spread of Christianity

This exhibits demonstrate how early European exploration was motivated by the desire to spread Christianity globally.

Part #1: What many explorers had hoped to achieve by traveling

There were many reasons for why European explorers had began to explore throughout the 15th and 16th century. Many people believe that the main reason European explorers were exploring the world was for the goal to conquer land to gain glory for themselves and their country. Although this is partly true many people forget that another major reason explorers were exploring land was for religious freedom and to spread Christianity. According to the book The Reformation by Sarah Flowers, she wrote that many Europeans explorers felt it was very important to spread Christianity. This was because in this time period Europeans believed that the only way to make it to heaven would be by becoming a follower of Christ. They also believed that when you died if you were not a Christ follower you would go straight to Hell. Many European explorers were essentially missionaries because they believed that they were called on by God to go spread the gospel and save the souls of savages. They had concluded that the best way of completing this task would be by exploring new lands and new people groups and spreading God’s word.

Part #2: What happened to many explorers who spread the Gospel

Although many European explorers had hoped to spread Christianity and the Bible, many did not expect the reactions and effects that occurred to them. According to Encyclopedia.com that stated that during the first century of European contact the American Indian population declined from 80 to 8 million. When many Europeans came into contact with different Indian tribes they had no intention on killing so much of their population. But due to many old world diseases that were brought over with the Europeans that the Indians had never came into contact with, they were wiped out by their arrival. Another effect done by the many explorers spreading the gospel lead to in later years having 75 Congregational, 41 Anglican, 30 Presbyterian,12 Catholic, 4 Lutheran, and Baptist churches being present in America. Also according to Aleteia.org created by Business Insider is a video map that shows the growth of many world religions but when specifically focusing on the growth of Christianity you can easily see that it was most popular in Europe.Then when hitting the 15th and 16th century in the map it is clearly seen how much growth Christianity does to all parts of the world but mostly in the Western Hemisphere. Another large effect done by European explorers can be seen by a timeline that shows missions activity all around the world created by Conflict Management Strategies. Its can easily be seen in this timeline that many events occurred in the 15th and 16th century to advance the expansion of Christianity and most of them were largely impacted by European explorers sharing the gospel.

Part #3: Examples of explorers who spread Christianity globally

There have been many well known explorers that spread Christianity but for this section I will only focus on three of them. The first very famous European explorer that I will talk about and could also be considered the first European explorer in history is Christopher Columbus. According to an online database on the Normandale website that provided a letter of Christopher Columbus’s. When putting this letter into the Voyant.com I found some words such as Christ, heaven, lord, and religion be used a few times in his letter explaining his exploration of some islands in the Indian Sea and the Natives that he met. This just goes to show how important it was to Christopher Columbus to share the gospel to the natives that he met that he felt it would be critical to include in his letter.

Image result for roberto de nobili

 

Another well known explorer was Roberto de Nobili. I learned about him from a Twitter post made by Ray. Roberto de Nobili was Italian Jesuit missionary in Southern India who learned and followed the Indian Brahman culture. He learned to become a friend and was seen as one of them this mad it very easy for him to spread Christianity.

 

 

And finally according to History Central.com there was an Explorer named Father Friar Vicente who was a monk that traveled with a group of Spanish explorers lead by Francisco Pizarro. In 1530-34 Father Friar Vicente tried to stop conflict from happening in  Peru with an Inca tribe lead by Atahualpa by using the word of God and sharing the gospel. Although he was not successful in stopping the conflict Father Friar Vicente had the intention on spreading God’s word even in the hardest situation.


Bibliography

Caldwell, Zelda. “WATCH: Map of How Religion Spread throughout the World.” Aleteia – Catholic Spirituality, Lifestyle, World News, and Culture. June 02, 2017. Accessed December 19, 2018. https://aleteia.org/2017/06/02/watch-map-of-how-religion-spread-throughout-the-world/.

“Explorers, Missionaries Traders.” “Explorers, Missionaries, Traders.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Ed. 2018. Accessed December 07, 2018. https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/explorers-missionaries-traders.

Flowers, Sarah. The Reformation. San Diego, Calif: Lucent Books, 1996.

“Guha on Early European Perceptions of Caste. Nobili Was a 16th Century Italian Jesuit Missionary. Pic.twitter.com/wnaNado1MT.” Twitter. September 24, 2018. Accessed December 17, 2018. https://twitter.com/SomeStingray/status/1044364138514980864.

“Library Off-Campus Access.” Normandale Community College. Accessed December 19, 2018. https://online-salempress-com.ndcproxy.mnpals.net/articleDetails.do?bookId=890&articleName=DDRen_0026&searchText=spread of christianity&searchOperators=exact&category=History.

Limited, Alamy. “Roberto De Nobili (1577-1656), Un Missionario Gesuita Italiano L India Meridionale. Data: Circa 1640 Foto & Immagine Stock: 105254462.” Alamy. Accessed December 18, 2018. https://www.alamy.it/foto-immagine-roberto-de-nobili-1577-1656-un-missionario-gesuita-italiano-l-india-meridionale-data-circa-1640-105254462.html.

“Missions Time Line.” Conflict Management Strategies. Accessed December 07, 2018. https://home.snu.edu/~hculbert/line.htm.

Schulman, Marc. “Capture of an Inca King: Francisco Pizarro.” The Debate over the Bank. Accessed December 07, 2018. https://www.historycentral.com/documents/pizzaro.html.

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Black Death

I was looking on Pinterest, scrolling through pins based off of the Black Death. I came across an article called “Was The Black Death a Virus?”. After reading this article, it goes into the effects of the black death. There was high mortality rate, it spread very quickly, easily infectious, there were “awful odors, bruise-like splotches and disrupted nervous systems that resulted in delirium and stupor.” This article explains Black Death but compares it to other illnesses such as modern-day bubonic plague, and buboes which have little similarities to Black Death itself. It points out that the disease came from fleas off of rats which infected humans and therefore spread. But looking at the spread across the world it took, the fleas should’ve died in the cold months, in which the migration of the infection doesn’t show. The article points out how a tumor back in that day, wouldn’t be the same definition of a tumor in modern-day health. So it makes me question: Was this a illness that occurred once and we didn’t correctly diagnose it? Or could it still be around because we were as intellectual back in those days? Or, could it simply be the same bubonic plague we have today, we’ve just grown to defend against the virus better?

This ties into another article I read from ABC news called, “Yes, the plague still exists, here’s what it’s like now in the US”. The news goes in to the fact of these children getting the bubonic plague, but being easily treatable with antibiotics. They state that the plague isn’t as severe, being deadly, as it use to be, and is treatable. Saying that there won’t be “another black death”. It also covers data showing the decreasing bubonic plague cases over the past few years.

After reading both of these articles, I noticed that the second one gives an answer to one of my questions. “Could it simply be the same bubonic plague we have today, we’re just grown to defend against the virus better?”. This article supports the idea of it is the same virus, we’re just in better health and therefore we won’t struggle as badly fighting against the illness as they did when the Black Death went around.

Though the second article makes a point that this virus isn’t common, it’s still dangerous and still around even after this many years. This could be a concern for Minnesotans. What if the bubonic plague hits Minnesota? No it wouldn’t be sudden death for anyone, but with the weather we receive it might not help getting the normal winter sickness, with a splash of bubonic plague on top.

Contemporary

Primary

 

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The Effects of the Black Death

The Black Death was a widespread epidemic of the bubonic plague which killed an estimated one-third of the European population during the height of the disease from around 1346 to 1353. The highly and indiscriminately infectious disease was spread by infected fleas from small animals. Due to the high number of fleas, rodents, and other small animals aboard merchant ships, the plague spread quickly and devastatingly across the globe bringing death and destruction everywhere it went. Most plague victims would meet their end only two to seven days after being infected and displayed symptoms including, but not limited to: gangrene, abdominal pain, bleeding, and, of course, death.

Those who were around at the time of the outbreak and miraculously lived to tell the tale left behind chilling accounts of what they had experienced. For example, a chronicle written between the years of 1314 and 1350 describes the impact the plague had on society through the social and economical scene. This first hand description of the Black Death tells about how so many workers dies that there weren’t enough people to replace them. “There was such a shortage of servants, craftsmen, and workmen, and of agricultural workers and labourers…[that] churchmen, knights and other worthies have been forced to thresh their corn, plough the land and perform every other unskilled task if they are to make their own bread” (Black Death Chronicle). This quote describes how even those of high societal ranking had to do the tasks of peasants because all of theirs had died in the Black Death epidemic. The importance of this statement sheds light on how, even after the plague, Europe remained deeply affected by the sheer number of people who died.

On a more contemporary note, this news story reports on a recent contraction of the plague. Though extremely rare, there are still people being diagnosed with the bubonic plague. According to the story, a child in Idaho was recovering from the bubonic plague in July of 2018. Due to advancements in the medical field as well as modern technology, the bubonic plague can be identified early and be treated quite easily with the help of antibiotics. “The plague, in spite of its lethal reputation, is not uncommon in the U.S. and it is usually no longer a death sentence” (ABC News). The story speaks to the fact that the plague is treatable in today’s world, and that though it is highly infectious, “another “black death” is not coming.” It also mentions ways to avoid contracting and spreading the plague.

The two sources relate because they both speak to how infectious the plague is, and that it could easily wipe out a population if left untreated or in filthy conditions. These sources raise an issue of how we as a society deal with infectious outbreaks such as the plague. For example, the fairly recent outbreak of Ebola continues to devastate third-world countries in Africa. As a Minnesotan in 2018, there is very little to worry about such outbreaks due to modern medicine.

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The Black Death

When I was learning about the Black Death a couple of weeks ago it was reminding me of when my cousin had meningitis and had blood coming to the surface of her skin as well in blisters.  The Black Death was the second of three pandemics in history.  It occurred in the 14th Century and originated in the mid 1300s in Central Asia lasting 400 years.  (Cua and Frey).  It was also the most severe of the three pandemics as 1/4-1/3 of Europes entire population died within the first few years.  (Cua and Frey).

The Black Death was spread from rodents fleas to humans.  The rats would travel on ships in trade routes and get off at the trade ports infecting entire cities. As the Black Death was known to leave black marks all over the skin it was resembled in many artworks in Europe from that time frame as well as in writings and plays.  (Cua and Frey).

I was surprised to see that there was a recent case of the Black Death which is a form of the bubonic plague, in Idaho in June 2018.  This was the first case of the Black Death Idaho had seen in 26 years. (Perrigo).  The boy is at home recovering in stable condition after being treated with antibiotics.  The Plague is much more easily treated now with modern antibiotics.  If the plague goes untreated it can still be deadly.  It is unclear if the boy was exposed to an infected flea on a trip he took to Oregon or if it was from his home state of Idaho.  (Perrigo).  There were squirrels tested for infected fleas in the boys neighborhood in 2015 and 2016 that came back positive but there have not been any other cases since then.  (Perrigo).

These articles are interesting because you would think even with modern medicine that if there were infected fleas that more people would get the plague or Black Death as they do with Strep Throat or a cold.  I wonder how many other rodents have been tested positive for the plague and how different people react to the disease when being exposed now.  I wonder with my primary news source how much further research they did into the boy’s case of the plague.

 

Primary News Story

Primary Source

 

 

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The Black Death

The Medieval Black Death that caused this terrible epidemic of 1347-1351 CE claimed so many lives. Millions of people died due to this horrible disease, mainly killing off the young, the old and anyone who was exposed previously to this condition. Research has come to show that people were still able to live beyond and after this outbreak. Extensive research has been done among the population living in London post Black Death. In London samples were taken from cemeteries of skeletons in the population at the time of the Black Death. There was a study down among ages of people that it affected but only adults were tracked. The death rate was lower among younger people and higher among older people. The Black Death was only one of the outbreaks of the plague. It was a catastrophe.

You would think that a mass epidemic would end a long time ago but it has not. The plague also known as the Black Death has come back, but  now in the 21st century a worst plague has hit, but this time it has come back and has haunted places such as the Congo and America. It is said that it’s much worse than the past. The Congo a place in Africa, is known to have one of the first cases of Ebola virus. This, like the plague is disease caused by bacteria. This disease is not only took people out fast, it spreads rapidly. The largest outbreak to date was in 2004, in West Africa or 28,000 people were infected and 11,000 people died. Not only was Ebola a pandemic throughout Africa, HIV, and the Zika virus is also considered on the level of diseases that the Black Death was given.

In the year 1918 the H1N1 Flu spread through the world from France to China, and to the United States. It killed off a million people young and the old. It killed rapidly and even coroners couldn’t keep up with how many deaths were happening. The H1N1 Flu was one of the deadliest. Fortunately in 1948 the first flu vaccine was created along with penicillin as an antibiotic to use to contain this disease.

The United States has many pandemics related to the black death which include deathly diseases like HIV, the flu, Zika virus, and SARS.  The United States has a very good vaccination program, hospitals, the latest in testing and Healthcare,  but we may not be ready to handle all the new diseases as a country. America has access to medication however we are still relying on health supplies and medications from other countries. We depend on medical supplies from India and China. Can America handle a pandemic of that magnitude? That is certainly a question for the President of the United States. 

It is possible the pandemic can be handled, but a lot of our health programs are needing funding, a lot of people rich and poor have trouble sustaining health care, and as a whole our country still needs political leadership to handle these things.

As of now, influenza is the most dangerous pandemic comparable to the Black Death. The flu virus kills almost 500,000 people around the globe yearly. If America takes steps to constantly watch for and stay updated on the latest vaccinations to treat this pandemic, we could overcome and not continue to take the lives of many people like the black death did.

Plague Doctor, via Love of History

Primary Source: https://bonesdontlie.wordpress.com/2014/05/09/surviving-the-black-death/

 

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The Black Death

The issue I chose to idenify was The Black Death. I found a Pintrest page and a WordPress that talk about this event. I feel these websites coralate well with eachother as one provides information with a few pictures and the other provides pictures with less information. The Black Death, also known as The Plague was a deadly diease. This disease killed about 75-200 million people in Europe. This was about 1/3 of Europes population at the time. This diease was transferred to humans by infected rats. There were four different types of The Plague. The bubonic plague happens by the bite of a flea. The bacterium would multiply within the flea before it was transferred to the victim. The second type of plague, was the septicemic plague. This plague was created by the entrance of bacteria from its multiplying place into the blood vessels. This plague would enter your body from the outside through wounds. The pathogens would make their way into your blood stream which would then be transfered throughout your entire body. The third type of plague was the pneumonic plague. This plague had two different forms of pests. The primary pneumonic plague would infect people by a droplet infection from person to person. The secondary pneumonic plague develops out of a bubonic plague. The pathogens would enter the lungs by blood vessels and provoke through a septicemic plague. The final type of plague was the abortive plague. This plague was a harmless variant of the pest that could be passed. The two most abundant forms, were the bubonic and the pneumonic plague. Relating this to life today, there could be many more bacteial outbreaks. For instance, in 2014 an outbreak occured in West Africa. Ebola was transferred to many different people and led to many deaths. Airlines into the country were shut down to prevent this disease from spreading into other countries. Our world is only improving and getting smarter though. Technology and medicene continue to improve everyday. I believe it is very beneficial to live in the United States. We have some of the top medical care and technology in the world. Not to say something like this couldn’t happen in our country, however I do think we have an advantage. 

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