Pollution in China

An issue that I think stems from the industrial revolution era is pollution. Nowadays, pollution is a hot button issue, with multiple companies and governments working hard to counteract the amount of smog, litter, and chemicals being created. One of the biggest contributors to the pollution epidemic is China. China is a large country that has industrialized quickly, and is currently one of the global leaders when it comes to creating items in factories. These factories are a good example of industrialization because they are a good example of urbanization. According to The World Bank Group, in the past 65 years, China has seen it’s country go from 16% of it’s population living in urban areas, to 58%. This is an astounding 42% increase. This urbanization has opened the doors for China to open up a ton of factories that are the supplier of income for many people in the country. Unfortunately, with all the countries opening up, pollution has skyrocketed and is at an all time. Smog envelops cities, creating a health risk for anybody in the surrounding area. According to the New York Times, China has had to give out a “Red Alert”, or the indication that the air quality is at an all time low. This “Red Alert” means that the air is currently unhealthy to breathe in. This is a huge problem, as humans, animals, and even plants need air in order to live and prosper. While industrialization has been amazing for China’s economy, these negative aspects such as pollution are a huge problem. It seems as though China is focusing on the positive growth of it’s economy as the main building block in it’s industrialization, overlooking these negative aspects as just a small price they have to pay for their success.  As China continues it’s industrialization, it’s a huge issue for the rest of the world, as pollution doesn’t just affect China, it affects everyone.

 

Citations:

“Urban Population (% of Total).” Urban Population (% of Total), World Bank Group, data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS.

Wong, Edward. “Beijing Issues Red Alert Over Air Pollution for the First Time.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 7 Dec. 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/08/world/asia/beijing-pollution-red-alert.html?mtrref=www.google.com.

Picture:

https://www.chemistryworld.com/news/china-clamps-down-on-polluting-factories/3008294.article

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Child Labor

I do believe that child labor is an issue that is happening in many countries that need to industrialize. Everyone thinks that today we don’t have any more child labor issue, but we are wrong, a lot of poor counties still use child labor because it is cheaper than an adult and a lot of kids does work because they need to help parents pay the bills.
There is more than 70 million of children around the world that does work in hazardous in agriculture, mining, domestic labor and other types of jobs. On tobacco farms, children do work on hot temperature and they are exposed to nicotine and toxic pesticide that can make the children sick and even can kill them. Some kids do work on artisanal and gold mines but working on mines they are exposed on toxic mercury to process the gold, because of the toxic can be very risk to the brain damage and other health problems. It is very common to see children working on gold mines in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.

In 1900, 25 percent of the employees were below the age of fifteen years old, but most of those kids were below the age twelve years old, the work conditions were not good for child labor. Bet 1902 to 1915, child labor stared to be have a reform though state legislatures. Laws started to be applied so the child labor would stop happened. Violations of the child labor laws continue with economically impoverished migrant agricultural workers.

Even today we can see that still have some child labor. A lot of kids with five years old does work driving large farm machine to help the parents. But the machine is so big to be controlled by a child, because of that thousand children are injured every year and some of the children are killed. In Wisconsin, a child called Cullen Schanchtschneider, 6 years old, was helping the parents and was tangled up in 4,600-pound farm machine that had ripped his leg apart.

Sources: https://www.history.com/topics/industrial-revolution/child-labor

https://www.hrw.org/topic/childrens-rights/child-labor

Kholer Schachtschneider, 8, operated a skid steer on his family’s dairy farm outside Ogdensburg, Wisconsin

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Unemployment Rates and it’ s Effects on the Era

During the industrial revolution new advancements in technology were becoming more common but as did unemployment. Unemployment was a big issue during the industrialization period citizens and families would all be affected by the unemployment rate. Either jobs were being taken by machines or certain jobs were not paying enough and workers left to find better jobs. Though factories would need some workers to man the machines to make sure they were working in good condition the few people that managed the machines would instead be managing the very machines that took most worker’s jobs. The jobs that were being filled were jobs that couldn’t be done by a machine, factories were being overrun by machines but things like janitorial services and carpentry. Unemployment is a big issue in world and affects the economy as a whole and even today we struggle with keeping the unemployment rate at a low and it is a main focus by our government to make sure the rate is low. Today in the US unemployment rates are at a record low. People today have been able to find work mostly due to the amount of new jobs being created to be filled. With all these jobs being created the citizens within the nation are now able to help grow the economy. In this article https://www.thebalance.com/unemployment-rate-330574 by The Balance it states hows the unemployment rate and the economy are directly correlated to one another’s growth and downfall. It also continues to state how the citizens are reliant on the unemployment rate being low so they can get a job along with the economy being stable so they can gain enough money to provide for their families. If one starts to plummet the other will soon follow as well along with if the one starts to grow the other should follow as well. Looking at the industrial revolution we can see how the issue starts to rise. The machines were starting to take over during this era and it can be seen here starting to become more common. Today jobs are still being filled by machines and it all directs back to where it started with the industrial revolution and the rise of the machines. This article http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/119 by Georgia Manson University has a direct first person encounter with the unemployment issue within the industrialization era. The article tells the story of Mr. and Mrs. DiMarco, and their struggle with the unemployment in the industrialization period. Mr.Dimarco is deaf was having a hard time finding a career during the time period and with the rise of machines it was hard to keep a job for longer than a year.  

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Industrialization and Environment

Industrialization undeniably changed the United States.  It made products more abundant and affordable, and if this was never done many of us would not have drawers or closets full of clothes or vehicles for multiple members in the house.  Not only did it improve the amount of resources available between us, but it provided for an explosion of low-skilled jobs that allowed for an explosion of new incomes, and more opportunities for household members to pitch in.

Two large changes were required as said by this article (paragraph six, 2008, ushistory.org) “First, an expanded system of credit was necessary to help entrepreneurs secure the capital needed for large-scale and risky new ventures. Second, an improved transportation system was crucial for raw materials to reach the factories and manufactured goods to reach consumers.”  Industrialization led to more capital for plants which continued to generate more goods.  It also caused change in the landscape itself as infrastructure to haul around all of the newly needed raw materials was required.  It was because of the increased capital that made it possible for more mines and fuel demanding buildings to be opened, and the increased need to transport raw materials that incentivized fuel burning transportation tools like trains and automobiles to become the standard.  This article (global emissions by economic sector, EPA.gov) shows which sectors contribute the most to emissions.

With the benefits of industrialization comes the negatives like increased emissions and global warming (Vital signs of the planet, Holly Shaftel, Susan Callery, November, 2018, Nasa.gov) which has adverse effects on the environment.  “The rate of Antarctica ice mass loss has tripled in the last decade” and “Global sea level rose about 8 inches in the last century. The rate in the last two decades, however, is nearly double that of the last century and is accelerating slightly every year”.

“…used satellite data to map out places along the coast that have low elevations — less than 30 feet above sea level. Then, to find out who lived there, they looked at census figures from 224 countries.  The numbers showed that low-elevation areas are home to 634 million people.” This was provided for by a study from NPR.org, revealing how many people were exposed to rising sea levels.  It’s 634 million people that potentially would lose homes and businesses.

The need to continue on with the production is understandable, seeing how we have become a national superpower that requires it for our military protection and to keep our economy healthy.  Unfortunately, all of the benefits are clearly economical and strategic while the consequences are opaque and distant.  While our president has backed out of the Paris-Climate agreement and shed land from reserves for the expansion of mines, the answer still is not so obvious as to how we can efficiently decrease emissions.  This article (barriers to renewable energy technologies, December 2017, UCSUSA.org) explains how things like capital costs, entry barriers, and transferring logistics make it difficult to make the switch to renewable energy.

 

 

 

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Industrialization and Unemployment

Unemployment is an issue that many people may face at one point or another during their life. The issue itself is unique in that it doesn’t necessarily affect everyone as individuals, but it has the potential to, and even when it doesn’t affect a person as an individual, unemployment plays a major role in a modern economy.

While the obvious cause of unemployment is that people have either lost their jobs or not found jobs, the issue of unemployment doesn’t necessarily have one cause. According to “Is Unemployment on Steroids in Advanced Economies?” by Gabriel Di Bella, which is an article focusing on unemployment in first world countries, claims that increases in unemployment have a permanent effect on unemployment. So previous periods of mass unemployment will still have a residual effect on current unemployment rates. Another reason for unemployment can be seen in “Deaf and Unemployed in Dubuque: The DiMarcos Remember the Great Depression” which was an interview by David Shannon in which he discussed employment during the great depression with two deaf adults. The interview showed how Mr. DiMarco had a tough time finding work, in part due to his deafness. The two sources are related as they both cover topics relating to unemployment.

Unemployment has been a major issue for years, because without a job, how is an individual supposed to support themselves or their family, but in larger economies, unemployment is more common and unemployment rates remain more stagnant. Industrialization can be seen as the cause for this. The process of industrialization in modern times occurs in the development of new technologies that improve productivity, but unfortunately this increase in productivity usually results in the loss of jobs. People who lose their jobs sometimes struggle to find new work and this can cause them to remain unemployed for months or even years. According to “Is Unemployment on Steroids in Advanced Economies?,” many workers who lose their jobs remain unemployed longer if unemployment support programs are generous and income taxes are higher. Unemployment support programs are a result of industrialization, to supplement those who are struggling until they can actively contribute to the economy again, but if programs are too generous it will reduce the sense of urgency that an unemployed person will have to get a new job and will ultimately lengthen the overall time that it takes for that person to get a new job, and during the time that they don’t have a job, they will continue to negatively impact the countries unemployment rate.

Unemployment is an issue rooted even in historical industrialization. In the interview with Mr. DiMarco, Dimarco had lost his job, and his only work was through WPA jobs. The interview was during the great depression, so it can be assumed that he likely lost his job due to the great depression, which was caused by the economy becoming industrialized. The direct cause of the great depression would be the stock market crash, which brought the economy to it’s knees and forced many large corporations to have to lay off employees in mass just to keep themselves from going bankrupt. This caused many people to suffer in poverty as they struggled to find work or make money, but if industrialization hadn’t occurred in the united states, then people likely wouldn’t have been struggling for food or money as most people would still be subsistence farmers and they wouldn’t need a job, because they made everything they needed to survive for themselves, so people wouldn’t be unemployed, but rather self-employed. This shows how even throughout history, industrialization has directly impacted employment.

“Is Unemployment on Steroids in Advanced Economies?”

https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2018/07/24/Is-Unemployment-on-Steroids-in-Advanced-Economies-46075

“Deaf and Unemployed in Dubuque: The DiMarcos Remember the Great Depression”

http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/119

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Long-Term Psychological Effects of the Industrial Revolution

By Caroline Kelly

The industrial revolution in both England and the U.S. made a huge impact during the 18th and 19th century. Technological advances, new jobs, and great opportunities were introduced to people residing in an industrial town. Producing textiles, steel, and pottery are just a few of the major industries during this time. One of the major industries during the industrial revolution was coal production. Since it was a hassle to move coal, towns that were located near mining sites naturally became industrial hubs. Naturally, the people in the towns assumed the jobs of miners and producers. While the opportunities for work may have seemed endless, psychological damage was to follow. An article published in the Harvard Business Review and in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology by Obschonk (2018), found that a general psychological decline can be seen from those that resided in and continue to reside in towns that were at the center of the industrial revolution.

During the industrial revolution, terrible work conditions, unfair pay, and overall health risks of working in mines and factories, negatively affected the community as a whole.  Not surprisingly, towns that are still actively involved in the coal industry experience still experience the same negative side effects that towns back in the 18th/19th century also experienced. For example, negative physical side effects i.e. asthma, COPD, and negative mental health side effects i.e. depression, anxiety, etc. are seen in coal mining towns. Not only do the workers experience these negative side effects, but so the does the community as a whole. While it is clear that the coal industry is no longer a prominent source of jobs for those in the U.K. and the U.S., the effects of the industry can still be felt in 2018 (Obschonk, 2018). The picture below shows a factory with coal winding machines. As you can see, the workers are all lined up, performing the same tasks on large coal machines. The work that these people did was dangerous and tedious.

winding-machines

Primary Source: Coal Winding Machines, link to website with video. https://www.loc.gov/item/96522217

The psychological effects of the industrial revolution have been passed down for generations. After collecting historical information on occupations of families during the revolution, where they lived, and if they still lived there, the researchers surveyed hundreds of thousands of people throughout England and the U.S. There results suggest that those whose families resided in industrial towns during the industrial revolution and continue to reside there, showed a more negative psychology than those who either moved or never lived there in the first place. For example, lower satisfaction and conscientiousness were reported in those that continue to live in industrial towns. These traits are then carried down through generations by how parents raise their children, how teachers teach their students, and how the community as a whole interacts and views themselves. The researchers did their best to control for external factors and looked at this issue from all angles.

The industrial revolution has left a lasting impact on technology and people. Personality and behavioral tendencies have been unknowingly passed down through for centuries. While some are prideful of their towns industrial past, others may not be so proud. While it may be difficult to erase the negative bits of a towns past, it is time to open our eyes to the devastating effects of the industrial revolution. It may seem as though the suffering from the revolution is in the past. In reality, we may still be battling the negative effects of the revolution today. It is crucial that we recognize that these effects are still prevalent and need to be addressed.

Works Cited

Coil winding machines, Westinghouse works. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/item/96522217

Obschonka, M. (2018, March 26). Research: The Industrial Revolution Left Psychological Scars That Can Still Be Seen Today. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2018/03/research-the-industrial-revolution-left-psychological-scars-that-can-still-be-seen-today

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Industrialization & Innovation

With the rapid urbanization of the Industrial Revolution, I was curious about healthcare during that time compared to now.  Healthcare professionals could not keep up with the vast changes that were occurring during a short period of time. There were many diseases, from poor sanitation, dirty water and poor living conditions.  Health professionals were unable to keep up with the sick and dying. Doctors were unable to keep up with demand and supplies. We are lucky to be living in the era of the fourth industrial revolution of digital technology.  Digital technology combined with healthcare is known as Digital Health. Many providers also offer telemedicine, a way for medical providers to communicate with patients that may not have transportation, live in remote areas or just need monitoring regarding a specific diagnosis.  Healthcare professionals can be deployed to different parts of the world, and be up to date on the latest medical information with digital health innovations, assisting areas that are in need. Social platforms, such as Twitter, have allowed discussions and research both with professionals and patients.  Twitter has also become important for healthcare brands so that people can get important information of their feeds. Innovation advancements, from the first to the fourth Industrial Revolution, has connected people globally in all areas of healthcare.

Sources

Sonnier, P. (2015 August 15). What is Digital Health?   Retrieved from https://storyofdigitalhealth.com

HealthCare Tech Official. (2017 August 20). HealthCare Tech Terms:  What is TeleMedicine?. Retrieved from https://www.healthcaretechnologies.com

https://business.twitter.com/en/blog/healthcare-brands-use-Twitter.html

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2055207618789281

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