Industrial revolution sparked innovation and new ways of doing things in Britain and America

With The coming of the industrial revolution brought with its chaos on different lands and people. Many saw their lands exploited, customs and culture altered by foreigners who were too powerful to challenge. But these events are not the only defining symbols of the industrial revolution. The industrial revelation main features were its abilities to create innovations as well as new ways of looking at challenges and providing solutions for those issues. Nowhere was this aspiration more evident than in Britain and America(USA). A great deal of the invention of this era was the results of the scientist, engineers and inventors from Britain and America. Whether the issue was one of dieting like the concern of the great American inventor Nikola Tesla, who stress proper dieting and exercising(Twitter )or building railroads, one can confidently say this was an era marked with a spirit for innovation and finding ingenious ways of doing things

A Voyant analysis(Word analysis) of Steven Johnson book titled How we got to now: six innovations that made the modern world, shows one of the most used word by the author is “new”, which emphasis during this era, just about everything was driven by coming up with new inventions by looking at everyday things from different perspectives. One steward of this initiative was the British scientist William Henry Fox Talbot(Image), who in 1833 after becoming annoyed by his drawing skills decided to find out ways to draw better with the help of technology. His endeavors resulted in the invention of photography, which was an outcome that affected not only how we captured images of our loved ones or other things of importance but effected the way we see drawing itself. Many of the industrial revolution era inventions were the ones that dealt with making life a lot easier or more efficient, such example of this aspiration were the invention of the telephone which cause us to rethink what it means to communicate. As well as the invention of the Steam Engine which not only improved traveling, but also was the backbone of the industrial revolution. Without it empires captured lands and distributed goods across different places with such speed and efficiency. (Time)

Much of Britain and America creative innovation was do large parts to its citizens being highly educated compared to other countries, for example a study done by David Mitch titled: Estimated illiteracy of men and women in England, 1500-1900(Number), illustrates the illiteracy rate of England drastically decreased about 40% by mid-19th century. Although this data is regarding Britain, since “Americans imitated and adopted British inventions and technology. As American political and economic power grew in the mid-nineteenth century, the impact of each country’s technology on the other began to be mutual.” (John Bull and Uncle Sam). Thus, its stands to reason that America also improved its education and also decreased illiteracy by somewhat the same margins. The need to be educated was largely fueled by survival and competition because countries that were lagging behind in this era were ones that had a high level of illiteracy. Therefore, it was the best interest of both Britain and America to have low levels of illiteracy.

Education and competition also created the spark and the process that accelerated the industrial revolution which was the steam engine. Railroads and transportation were the results of the invention of the steam engine. Because of railroad’s land was not only a place to reside or grow food, because of this invention our understanding of land usage changed greatly. Thus, creating railroads that crisscrossed(Map) both Britain and America.

Therefore, it’s fair to say when a new technology was invented during this period, it created with it an easy to do tasks and it also came with it innovative ways of doing those tasks.

Work cited Page

Thesis: Industrial revolution sparked innovation and new ways of doing things in Britain and USA

Source 1(time-primary):

“John Bull and Uncle Sam: Four Centuries of British-American RelationsInventions and Discoveries.” Inventions and Discoveries – John Bull and Uncle Sam: Four Centuries of British-American Relations | Exhibitions (Library of Congress). July 22, 2010. Accessed April 28, 2017. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/british/brit-5.html#skip_menu.

Source 2(image-primary): Picture taking by William Henry Fox Talbot

“Invention of Photography – Fox Talbot.” The British Library. January 27, 2015. Accessed May 18, 2017. https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/invention-of-photography.

Source 3(maps-primary):

Company, Rand Mcnally And, and Union Pacific Railway Company. “New map of the Union Pacific Railway, the short, quick and safe line to all points west.” The Library of Congress. Accessed April 28, 2017. https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3701p.rr005950/. 

Source 4(social media):

Account, Big ThinkVerified. “In 1933, a 77 year-old #NikolaTesla spoke about what kept him going in life: https://t.co/wxdmt14F48 https://t.co/rITE6r10gF.” Twitter. April 16, 2017. Accessed April 28, 2017. https://twitter.com/bigthink/status/853741565575139328/photo/1

 Source 5 (words):

Johnson, Steven. How we got to now: six innovations that made the modern world. UK: Penguin Books, 2015.

 Source 6 (numbers):

David Mitch, “Education and Skill of the British Labour Force,” in Roderick Floud and Paul Johnson, eds., The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain, Vol. I: Industrialisation, 1700-1860, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. p. 344.

https://www1.umassd.edu/ir/resources/laboreducation/literacy.pdf

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Exhibit Final

The British empire has been a constant world superpower for the last several hundred years. Their success was in part from their colonizing and taking advantage of foreign lands. The change of the British empire from colonial superpower to abolishing slavery was a long process and took about a half century. The first attempts were in the 1770’s and went largely unnoticed until 1787 when the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade was formed. (Tombs 366)

A new kind of British Empire was emerging, more racially and culturally diverse, more authoritarian… and in Britons mind more progressive. … Defeat in America made the British public less willing to overlook the immorality of the old colonial empire. –The English and their history, By Robert Tombs (365)

The growing abolitionist sentiment lead to a massive slave labor boycott and the British government receiving 519 petitions with almost four hundred thousand signatures in 1792. (Tombs 366) However, the end of Britain’s involvement in the slave trade came in 1807 when parliament banned it. Emancipation was not passed until 1833 as a gradual emancipation. Violent protests resulted in full emancipation in 1838, the slave owners were paid a total of 20 million pounds, (History.ac.uk) The approximate equivalent of 1.3 billion US dollars with inflation. The act did not free all however, it only affected those in the West Indies, Cape Town, Mauritius and Canada. (An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade) Geographically, the largest source of slavery wasn’t Britain, but Brazil and the Caribbeans, for more on this, Crash Course has a great description of the Atlantic slave trade.

By fair means and foul, Britain outwitted its European rivals and became the premier trader in the enslaved from the seventeenth century onwards, and retained this position till 1807.

-History.ac.uk

 Even though the abolition act banned the slave trade, production of slaving ships and the trade both continued with little opposition. In India alone during 1841 there was an estimated 9 million slaves who were freed in 1868 when it was outlawed. In some colonies full emancipation came even later, almost a century after the original act, Sierra Leone was liberated in 1927.

The British Empire controlled a massive amount of the slave trade. This Arc GIS map draws out the voyages and gives a scope to the massive amount of slave trading, making Britain’s turn around even more impressive, however long it took.

“>ARC GIS Map

The end of the slave trade was celebrated by this cologne bottle, produced in 1833 by Falcon Glassworks. It was most likely circulated in celebration, the image on the bottle was also widely distributed on many media platforms.

45278

More important dates and events relating to the movement to abolition can be found on this timeline: UK Learning Timeline.

Sources:

My most informative source was my numbers source (secondary), History.ac.uk, the author had an excellent grasp on the history and had great reputable statistics. My words source (secondary), The English and their History, by Robert Tombs I choose for the extensive background on England, even though it had less pertaining to my topic than other sources. My second words source (primary) was the actual document of 1807 found at 1807 Act . For my maps choice (Primary) I found a very interesting ARC GIS map of slave trade routes that had details of where the ships were going to and from and what cargo they had on board. My images source (primary) was difficult to find due to all the possible options, but I felt that the cologne bottle was very representative of the time and a very unique piece. The timeline for my times source (secondary) I choose mostly for its simple interface that gives links and all the information needed. My social media source (secondary) is from Crash course, a brilliant youtube channel that created a very informative episode on the slave trade.

 Works Cited:

“An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade.” 47 Geo. III, Sess. 1 Cap. 36, http://www.pdavis.nl/Legis_06.htm. Accessed 11 May 2017.
Attributed to Falcon Glassworks of Apsley Pellattexpand_more. “Cologne Bottle, Attributed to Falcon Glassworks of Apsley Pellatt ^ Minneapolis Institute of Art.” Cologne Bottle, Attributed to Falcon Glassworks of Apsley Pellatt | Mia, collections.artsmia.org/art/45278/cologne-bottle-attributed-to-falcon-glassworks-of-apsley-pellatt. Accessed 11 May 2017.
Crashcourse. “The Atlantic Slave Trade: Crash Course World History #24.” YouTube, YouTube, 5 July 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnV_MTFEGIY. Accessed 11 May 2017.
Library, British. “Timeline.” The British Library – The British Library, http://Www.bl.uk/Copyrightstatement.html, 16 Mar. 2007, http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/campaignforabolition/abolitionbackground/slaverytimeline/timeline.html. Accessed 11 May 2017.
Sherwood, Marika. “History in Focus.” Britain, Slavery and the Trade in Enslaved Africans, by Marika Sherwood, Institute of Historical Research, 1 May 2007, http://www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Focus/Slavery/articles/sherwood.html. Accessed 11 May 2017.
Sluyter, Andrew. “Dutch and British Atlantic Slave Trade Voyages, 1751-1795.” Arcgis.com, http://Www.ucm.es/Info/Cliwoc/Intro.htm, 26 July 2013, http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=abe8645724cd404f80d754d789b96457. Accessed 11 May 2017.
Tombs, Robert. The English and Their History. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2016.

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Industrialization to Imperialism: Europe

Today, Europe and Western Culture dominates most of the world and economic markets. But how did the world end up this way? Imperialism is when a “stronger” country dominates a “weaker” country whether by military force or by diplomacy. And its Imperialism that created the world we know today, and its very important to understand how our world has developed; even The Japan Times is still tweeting about imperialism today (The Japan Times)! Taking this back one more step, why were some countries “stronger” while some were “weaker”. This can be attributed to industrialization. Industrialization helped fuel the start of imperialism in the 19th century.

The age of Imperialism started around the late 1800s after the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was a catalyst to imperialism. The Industrial Revolution created fast economic growth as well as huge improvements in technology. Because of these new improvements, population growth was on the rise, people were living longer, there was mass production of goods, and changes in the distribution of those goods. The industrial Revolution started in Great Britain because of their geographic advantages and able farm animals (Diamond). Soon, industrialization spread throughout Europe and to the United States. These new industrialized nations needed more raw materials to fuel their mass production and population growth.

In order to maximize the countries profits, these industrialized nations went out to find nations that they could exploit natural resources and cheap labor from thus leading to imperialism. By the late 19th century, ¼ of earth’s territory redistributed among less than 12 industrialized countries (“Imperialism Stats.”). All of these countries were scrambling to get the best natural resources to fuel their factories, growing populations and economic growth caused by industrialization.

Looking at the countries that did not industrialize, we see that they were the ones who were taken over by imperialism.

The White Mans Burden

“American Imperialism” 

First printed in Life, March 16, 1899, this illustration shows the true dominance of the industrialized nations over the industrialized nations. This particular image was depicted from the poem “The White Man’s Burden” which shows the “white” colonial powers being carried as the burden of their “colored” subjects. “The White Man’s Burden” is known as the anthem of imperialism because it shows responsibility industrialized nations felt they had to take over “weaker” nations (Kipling). 

In 1902, an English economist named John A. Hobson wrote a famous critique on the economic basis of imperialism. By analyzing the most frequent words used in Hobson’s writings the basis of imperialism clearly stems from industrialization. The most frequently used word in Hobson’s writing is market/economic market. Industrialization caused a huge growth in the economic markets of industrialized countries which created a demand for more goods and imperialism was used as the answer go getting more of those goods. A few other words that Hobson used very frequently were population, and nation/nationality (Hobson). Population growth also occurred during the industrialization and now industrialized nations were trying to have the biggest, strongest country with the most land, resources and people; this type of mind set also led to nationalism.

Great Britain is the best example of an industrial nation gone imperialistic. Because of certain environmental factors and political situations, Great Britain was the first country to experience industrialization. Industrialization set the stage for imperialism in Great Britain. More demand for products, higher population, rapid economic growth, a new sense of nationalism led to Great Britain taking over huge amounts of land throughout the globe. By 1886, Great Britain, ruled over all of what is now Canada, India, Australia, South Africa, parts of the east African coast, and many islands in the Caribbean.

Imperial Federation, map of the world showing the extent of the British Empire in 1886

Author: Colomb, J. C. R.

As other nations industrialized, they had the same effects as Great Britain — growth of their population, economic market, nationalism and demand. Thus, imperialism also came along with the industrialization of countries. The nations that did not industrialize in the 19th century then did not take part in imperializing other nations, but instead were the “burden” to those industrialized nations.

                                                                        Works Cited
“American Imperialism.” American Imperialism | Stanford History Education Group. Accessed April 27, 2017. https://sheg.stanford.edu/american-imperialism.

Colomb, J. C. R. . “Imperial Federation, map of the world showing the extent of the British Empire in 1886 | The Norman B. Leventhal Map Center.” Norman B. Leventhal Center. Accessed April 27, 2017. http://www.leventhalmap.org/id/m8682

Diamond, Jared M. Guns, germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.

Hobson, John A. ” The Economic Bases of Imperialism.” Economic Bases of Imperialism by John Hobson – HistoryWiz Primary Source – Imperialism in Africa and Asia. Accessed April 27, 2017. http://www.historywiz.com/primarysources/economicimperialism.html.

“Imperialism Stats.” Imperialism stats. Accessed April 26, 2017. http://inside.sfuhs.org/dept/history/US_History_reader/Chapter7/imperialismstats.htm

The Japan Times. “Commentary: Identifying the deadly sins of U.S. imperialism .” Twitter. April 16, 2017. Accessed April 27, 2017. https://twitter.com/japantimes/status/853556095654277121.

 

 

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by | May 11, 2017 · 10:12 am

The Civil War and Women’s Sufferage

 

The woman’s role and the treatment of women during the Civil War played a direct role in the development of the women’s suffrage movement. As the expectations of a woman grew and developed during the civil war this caused women’s desire for independence and representation to grow.

 Women in the Civil War

Clayton

Frances Clayton, aka Frances Clalin, who is one of many women who disguised themselves as men to serve during the civil war.

During the Civil War time period, women were taught to be housewives and in wealthy homes were treated primarily a decoration, a figure meant to sit prettily and serve her husband readily. In Letters on Female Character, written by Virginia Clay, a southern housewife, she says,

“… my duty required me to submit to his will. That his reveries might be important to other people, if not to me. O, how my heart beat with pleasure, when I heard him applauded vehemently for a speech, made on the very subject that occupied his mind so long. If I had interrupted him with my selfishness, now thought I, he never would be able to concentrate his attention so as to excel.”

As context, this selfishness she is referring to is addressed earlier in the book and is having a conversation with him during his work day. This shows that during this time period, women were not expected to be intellectual or purposeful, but were supposed to act in a way that solely supported their husbands.

While this was the expectation, many women rebelled and found more purposeful occupations for themselves and their ample capability.

Although there are only a few women who are well known for their service during the Civil War, it is estimated that anywhere from 400-750 women posed as men to serve in the civil war. While some women worked in positions that allowed them to serve as women, for example in factories or as nurses, there were a number of women that served in the front lines, bravely acting as men; this shows active defiance to the way things were “meant to be,” according to social norms.

Defiance in the Women’s Suffrage Movement

Poster from women’s suffrage movement. This shows the attitude that was taken which treated the movement as an ad campaign of sorts used to promote the cause of the woman gaining her ability to vote.

As women grew more and more determined to gain their independence and a voice and representation, the woman’s role shifted greatly. They become more vocal in asking for what they wanted, which specifically was the right to vote. The Women’s Suffrage Movement began in 1848 when a group of men and women led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott gathered in Seneca Falls, New York to present a Declaration of Sentiments. This document called for women to join the group of people that were represented in by the Declaration of Independence, specifically the portion that states,

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”

On January 17th, 1920, the 19th Amendment was added to the American Consitution which gave anyone the right to vote, regardless of their sex.

Map showing woman’s right to vote in different states.

When comparing this animated map of the civil war, and the map shown above, you can see that where there was a concentration of Civil War battles, there are also states that allowed women to vote after the 19th Amendment was created, which was a direct product of the Woman’s Suffrage Movement.

As seen in this Google NGram, equality was not reached in this time period, but progress has been made in leaps and bounds, empowering women.

The woman’s role in the Civil War as a supporter of her husband, with no real voice or power of her own, caused women to defy what was expected of them and step into roles that were thought to only be able to be filled by men. This step helped women find their power and their voice and eventually lead to the Women’s Suffrage movement by helping women discover that their potential was not related to their sex, but rather their ability to work hard and chase what they wanted.

In the words of Harriet Beacher Stowe, an active leader in the Woman’s Movement,

“When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you, till it seems as though you could not hang on a minute longer, never give up then, for that is just the place and time that the tide will turn.”

The women who so bravely fought in the movement to secure women’s right to vote worked hard against their adversaries and through determination were able to meet their goal.

Works Cited

B, Greta. “Suffrage Photo Analysis.” Women in the Workplace. Blogspot, 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 3 May 2017.
“The Entire Civil War.” Civil War Trust. Civil War Trust, n.d. Web. 3 May 2017.
“Female Soldiers in the Civil War.” Civil War Trust. Civil War Trust, n.d. Web. 10 May 2017.
“Google Ngram Viewer.” Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2017.
“Harriet Beecher Stowe Quotes.” BrainyQuote. Xplore, n.d. Web. 10 May 2017.
Mg. “Women’s Suffrage Maps from Ball State University Libraries Mark 19th Amendment Anniversary.” GIS Research and Map Collection. BlogSpot, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 7 May 2017.
Staff, History.com. “The Fight For Women’s Suffrage.” History.com. History.com, 2009. Web. 5 May 2017.
Thomas, Ella Gertrude Clanton, and Virginia Ingraham. Burr. The Secret Eye: The Journal of Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas, 1848-1889. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina, 1990. Print.

 

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The Influence of Religion

Thesis:

This display shows how religion has influenced American culture from the beginning. It is the backbone and foundation to how this country was founded and to how it still runs. Religion has been around for thousands and thousands of years and is spreading throughout the world. Specifically, the United States is known to be a place where freedom of religion exists, and multiple religions are expressed because of that value. In this display, I am going to talk about how religion plays an integral part in this country and how our culture is shaped around religious beliefs, specifically Christianity.

Block 1

Throughout history you will find quotes and statistical data regarding the influence of religion. On Gapmider.com it shows that from 1917 to 2015 the American population has grown from 104M to 322M people. As you look at the population numbers you find that Christianity is one of the top religions in America. In fact, when people first came to America from Europe almost all of the founders were from a Christian background. In a map I discovered it shows the geographic correlation to all religions and where they are located around the world. If you look at Europe and America, Christianity is highlighted in all blue. While America is known as the “melting pot”, I would say that the map primarily represents those that identify themselves as Christian. Many of the people who initially came to this country held Christian beliefs. Religion was/is very important to this country, whether people actively practice it or not.

Block 2

If you look back in time and to present-day, religion is seen everywhere (our Pledge of Allegiance, national anthem, different nationally known songs, quotes on books, shirts, social media and even on our currency and governmental buildings). One example of how religion has the greatest influence on our culture is when disasters strike our country (or even others). People look to something/someone for comfort and guidance. During the 9/11 disaster, churches grew to a number that has never happened before. Maxwell-Coghlan was quoted in an article as saying “September 11 brought us great anguish and pain, but it also brought us together in shared identity and common purpose” (Barna 9/11). In another article it was stated the “40% of all churches in Manhattan started after the year 2000… A great many people returned to the churches and faiths of their past to seek comfort and spiritual perspective in the wake of the terror attacks” (Internet Monk).  We also celebrate religious events throughout the year in America: Christmas, Easter, Hanukkah, etc.

Block 3

One thing to note about America, is that we can practice whatever religion we want, or we do not have to practice anything at all. In 1974 Richard Nixon stated in a speech. “recognize the right of people in the world to be different from what we are. Even some may have different religions. Even some, we must accept, may not have a religious belief, as we understand a religious belief, to believe” (God In America Article).9328322e974468b18a9632c602e5806e.jpg

As you reflect on past history, all but one president identified themselves with a specific religion (a majority categorized themselves as Christian). The first amendment says, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise…”. In a book about Woodrow Wilson- our 28th President, it references a letter written to Nancy Toy. An excerpt of his letter says, “My life would not be worth living if it were not for the driving power of religion, for faith, pure and simple… never for a moment have I had one doubt about my religious beliefs…” (Cooper 279).

Block 4

While there is/needs to be the separation of church and state, Christianity has had a huge impact in America. In an article called the Impact of Christianity by Faith Facts, great points are made about how America’s influence is based on the teachings of Christianity. A few quotes/example from this article are listed below and are related to government:

  • America’s foundational idea of The Rule of Law rather than the authority of man traces back to the Old Testament, beginning with the Ten Commandments.
  • The idea that all men are created equal as enshrined in the Declaration of Independence is a biblical doctrine.
  • The notion of the sovereign authority of God (as mentioned in the Mayflower Compact, the Declaration of Independence, all 50 state constitutions, our currency, etc.)–rather than the sovereignty of the state–is certainly biblical.
  • The existence of moral absolutes (a biblical concept) is an important idea in our Declaration of Independence–specifically, self-evident truths and unalienable rights from the Creator.
  • Many other aspects of our laws come directly from the Bible–for example the judicial, legislative and executive branches trace to Isaiah 33:22. Fair trials with witnesses have numerous Old and New Testament support.
  • Regarding civil liberty, founding father John Adams (and others) emphasized 2 Corinthians 3:17 as the basis for American civil liberty. The slogan on the Liberty Bell is “Proclaim Liberty throughout the land unto all the Inhabitants Thereof” is from Leviticus 15:10. Kennedy and Newcombe argue that Jesus himself was the greatest civil libertarian of all time.

Conclusion

In closing, I think one of the greatest strengths of the United States was its desire to provide a place of freedom of dictatorship, of excessive governmental influence and of religious persecution. The fact that you can practice any religion, or no religion without persecution correlates with the Bible’s teaching that God allows a free will and ability for everyone to choose Christ as their Savior. This teaching allows people to stay within the Christian faith, or make the decision to believe differently. It is interesting to note that there is a growing influence of people coming from other countries around the world to do Christian ministry. This may have to do with the growing number of immigrants that have come to America and their desire to influence their belief system.

Bibliography

Image- (Secondary)

Co., USA Flag. “The Pledge of Allegiance.” Pinterest. Flag Co., 21 Feb. 2017. Web. 10 May 2017.

Numbers- (Secondary)

Gapminder Tools. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2017.

Social Media- (Secondary)

“American Views on Terrorism: 15 Years After 9/11.” Barna Group. N.p., 9 Sept. 2016. Web. 10 May 2017.

Words- (Primary)

Baltzell, George W. “Constitution of the United States – We the People.” Constitution for the United States – We the People. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2017.

Words-(Primary)

Cooper, John Milton. Woodrow Wilson: A bibliography. New York: Vintage , 2011. Print.

Social Media- (Primary)

“God In America.” PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, 11 Oct. 2010. Web. 10 May 2017.

(Secondary)

Meek, Charles S. “Faith Facts.” The Impact of Christianity – Faith Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2017.

(Secondary)

Mike, Chaplain. “Home.” Internetmonkcom. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 May 2017.

Time-(Secondary)

“Religious affiliations of Presidents of the United States.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 07 May 2017. Web. 10 May 2017.

Maps- (Primary)

“World Religion Database.” AfricaMap. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2017.

Images- (secondary)

|, Sandy Hingston. “12 Things You Might Not Know About the Constitutional Convention.” Philadelphia Magazine. N.p., 25 May 2016. Web. 10 May 2017.

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The Impact of the Industrial Revolution

Thesis

This exhibit demonstrates that industrialization proved to be a turning point for the US because it left an impact on society in many positive ways as well as shaping the future for the United States.

Before the Industrial Revolution, Americans were living in small towns and getting around in horse-drawn carriages. Before the development of machinery, manufacturing was mostly done in their own homes using their hands. Food was produced locally by farms which were located everywhere and were self-produced by families.

Section 1: Population Growth

Sources: 1 (Maps) and 2 (Numbers)

Without the Industrial Revolution, the US wouldn’t have become as populated as it is today.  Comparing the two maps, one from 1870 and the other from 1890, you can see the substantial difference between the two maps. While the Industrial Revolution was happening, a mass immigration occurred in 1880 which affected the population. When the immigration happened the amount of workers in the United States more than doubled starting from 18.1 million workers to 40.5 million workers. Overall between the years of 1800 and 1890, the population was at around 5 million people but by the time it was 1890, the population was at around 62 million people in the United States mostly living in the eastern part of the US in major cities. That is around twelve times more people than there was in 1800. The reason for people to come to the US was to seek out better economic growth, a place to explore new opportunities, and to be able to start a new life.

FullSizeRender

Population of US in 1870

1890

Population of US in 1890

 

Section 2: Advancements in Technology

Sources 3 (Time) and 4 (Words)

Throughout the time of the Industrial Revolution many new inventions and voyantadvancements in technology and medicine had arisen which had an impact on society. On October 16, 1846 America had discovered its first major medical advancement which was surgical anesthesia. The reasoning behind creating anesthesia was that some surgeries weren’t possible without causing too much pain which limited surgery to only a few types of procedures. Amputation was a major surgical procedure, especially during wars, which inflicted great amounts of pain and the patient only had a fifty-fifty chance of living. With the anesthesia, the pain will go down and they would have a higher chance of living. Many of the popular inventions that were created included the steam engine, the cotton gin, the telegraph/telephone, the car, and numerous others. The telegraph, created by Samuel F. B. Morse, evolved into the telephone, invented by Alexander Graham Bell, improved communications which led to our modern forms of communication like the cell phone.

 

Section 3: Machines and Modern Business

Sources 5 (Social Media) and 6 (Image)

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the only “business” there ever really was, included farming and trading. Everything was also done by people which required them to hand-make clothing, harvesting and planting crops one by one, manufacture products by hand, along with countless

Textile

First Successful Textile Factory

others. The steam engine was the start of powering machines in various factories, mills, and mines. Besides powering machinery, the steam engine powered ships, steamboats, railway locomotives, and road vehicles. The cotton gin was a lifesaver for farmers and for those who worked on farms. Instead of having to handpick and separate cotton for hours, Eli Whitney created the cotton gin which created greater productivity by separating the cotton and its seeds much easier. With the production of cotton increasing, the production of clothing also increases. In the 1850’s a gun was created by Samuel Colt which had interchangeable parts which would lead to the making of the sewing machine. This machine revolutionized the making of clothing. Clothing was starting to be made in factories instead of at home which led to women having job opportunities in the textile industry.

 
With that being said, due to all of the hard work of those who have lived here in the past, those positive changes that were created during the Industrial Revolution shaped what the United States is what it is today.

 

Works Cited

Source 1 (Maps): Census History Staff. “History.” Population Distribution Over Time – History – U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Census Bureau, n.d. Web. 7 May 2017.

Source 2 (Numbers): Hirschman, Charles, and Elizabeth Mogford. “Immigration and the American Industrial Revolution From 1880 to 1920.” Social Science Research. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 01 Dec. 2009. Web. 6 May 2017.

Source 3 (Time): “Industrial Revolution Inventions Timeline – 1712-1942.” The Story of America RSS. Stories of USA, n.d. Web. 2
6 Apr. 2017.

Source 4 (Words): “Industrial Revolution.” Dictionary of American History. Encyclopedia.com, 2003. Web. 6 May 2017.

Link to Voyant: https://voyant-tools.org/?corpus=68573fac8eb509c8d4521d5a2ee5274a

Source 5 (Social Media): Kelly, Martin. “Significant Events of the American Industrial Revolution.” ThoughtCo. ThoughtCo, 3 Apr. 2017. Web. 7 May 2017.

Link to Social Media Post: http://pin.it/9YY4E6m

Source 6 (Image): Corrick, James A. The Industrial Revolution. San Diego, CA: Lucent, 1998. Print.

Other Sources Used:

Hansen, Bert. “Medical Advances in Nineteenth-Century America.” The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, 21 June 2012. Web. 7 May 2017.

 

 

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Final exhibit

My thesis is as follows-

The blatant and unapologetic mistreatment of African Slaves from their origin country and throughout their journey’s to their end destinations is why the fundamental system of abuse and neglect of an entire race was seen as normal and acceptable as a whole and why this mistreatment was carried over into how they were treated abroad.

 

Terrible treatment at sea-

The first source I used to support this claim is a map of the slave routes that the captured slaves were transported on, and it shows how long these journeys were. The second source that I think pairs well with the first map, is a depiction of a slave ship. The reason that I used these sources is because they show the long journeys that these slaves were forced to endure and they also show the terrible conditions that these slaves were in for during these long journeys. The cramped slave areas of the canoes that were dark and unsanitary must have been a living hell during the journey from the coast to the main slave vessel, and when the slaves finally got to the main vessel they would soon find out that the ships were functionally the same, maximum human cargo with minimum space used up. This must have been terrifying for the passengers for the months spent at sea and this obvious disregard for humankind is one of the main catalysts for the continued mistreatment of an entire race.

slave_trade_1650-1860_b - www.slaveryinamerica.org

Map of the routes used throughout the slavery era that shows specific numbers of enslaved people and where they were transported to.

Slave vehicle depiction

Depiction of a slave canoe that was used to transport slaves from the coast to the main transport vessels.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The process of dehumanization

The next two sources help me to prove that the europeans used a process of dehumanization to make slavery seem less harmful and controversial to those who were potentially opposed to the act of slavery. The first source I used was a social media post that depicts slaves working in the fields under constant surveillance of their captors. The fear these captors forced into the slaves through regular displays of violence and threats of violence has contributed to the dehumanization of the slaves, and because of the slaves skin color these same negative thoughts and assumptions continued long after slavery was abolished.

slaves working .jpg

Slave owners monitoring the work of slaves with promises of punishment if the work is not up to snuff.

The second source I used to support this claim is one that explains the slave traders involvement in the process and their vital role in the process that allowed so many slaves to be sent away. The fact that the slave traders did not associate the slaves they captured with a label such as race allowed the europeans to exploit this lack of interest in race in order to obtain as many slaves as possible without upsetting the traders with racially motivated conflicts or disputes. The European created bias against races with different color skin did not seem to bother these traders because the traders just saw people rather than colored people. In other words they did not truly understand what the Europeans motives were because they saw things differently than the Europeans. This eventually lead to all of the racial tension and issues we see today because this era of exploitation even from Africans themselves (slave traders) made the issue of race into a defining characteristic of a person, rather than simple genetics.

Source talking about slave traders and their relationships to Europeans

 

First hand accounts of slavery and its ferocity

The final two sources I chose to include in this exhibit show first-hand accounts of a slave escaping to Canada in a search for a better life, and a captain of a slave ships account of the conditions out at sea.

The first source from Captain Philips shows me that even though the people involved with slavery knew what they were doing was wrong and inhumane, they still continued on because of the dehumanization that I talked about earlier. If the people were white on the captains ship, he would likely have different opinions on slavery and its place among acceptable practices. This dehumanization was present back then and it is present today as well in many different groups of minorities and races. This dehumanization is a tactic the Europeans used to make their actions seem acceptable and ok. The consequences of this greed and ignorance can be seen today as many people continue to have racist attitudes despite the long and brutal battle against racism. The fact that people still see African-Americans as less human despite slavery being abolished long before they were born shows the damage that these attitudes and beliefs have caused.

Captain Phillips’ journal

 

The last source is a journal from a young slave that more than anything wanted to escape the horrors of slavery no matter the cost. The desperation shown in these accounts shows how far an average person is willing to go to escape a torturous and hellish situation. When put into Voyant this passage reveals how often the writer mentions the word freedom, Canada, and risk. These words show me that her main priority was to escape to Canada despite the risks from the slave catchers. The pursuit of freedom was so strong with her and so many other slaves that they were willing to risk their lives to escape and be free. This supports my thesis because it shows how bad the mistreatment of the slaves was and how little regard for their slaves the owners had. The slaves were seen as property not humans, and this fundamental belief is what lead to our current racist attitudes and problems today. The fact that a young woman was so miserable as a slave that she risked death and uncertainty to possibly be free tells me that slavery was worse than any of us could imagine, and the fact that these attitudes still show themselves today does not fully surprise me.

Screen Shot 2017-05-10 at 7.11.24 PM

 

In conclusion all of my sources support my thesis that the blatant and unapologetic mistreatment of African slaves from their origin country and throughout their journeys to their end destinations is why the fundamental system of abuse and neglect of an entire race was seen as normal and acceptable as a whole and why this mistreatment was carried over into how they were treated abroad. They all support this claim by showing the extent to which the mistreatment was ignored and scoffed at due to constant and endless efforts from the Europeans to dehumanize the African race to a level at which slavery was seen as a normality, and necessity. The attitudes and racist populations we still see today are a direct result of this systematic dehumanization and deliberate mistreatment of an entire race with the sole purpose of greed and money.

 

 

Works cited

Maps-

 

http://www.slaverysite.com/slave%20trade.htm-

 

Frankel, Neil A. Slave trade map, 1650-1860. July 13, 2008. Accessed April 28, 2017. http://www.slaverysite.com/slave%20trade.htm.

 

Primary source

 

 

Images-

 

http://www.slavevoyages.org/resources/images/category/Vessels/2

 

“Section of Canoe for Transporting Slaves, Sierra Leone, 1840’s .” Image Detail. 2013. Accessed April 28, 2017. http://www.slavevoyages.org/resources/images/category/Vessels/2.

 

Primary source

 

 

 

Numbers-

 

https://www.thoughtco.com/african-slave-traders-44538

 

Thompsell, Angela. “African Slave Traders: A History.” ThoughtCo. March 6, 2017. Accessed April 28, 2017. https://www.thoughtco.com/african-slave-traders-44538.

 

Secondary source

 

 

Words-

 

ErinC, S. T. (n.d.). Diary of a Black Slave. Retrieved April 28, 2017, from http://www.teenink.com/nonfiction/academic/article/311470/Diary-of-a-Black-Slave/

 

 

https://voyant-tools.org/?corpus=2af374302fb897c69edfec57f31f0dcc

 

Secondary source

 

 

 

 

 

Time-

 

Schneider, D., & Schneider, C. J. (Eds.). (2000). Captain Thomas Phillips’ journal of the voyage of the HANNIBAL 1693. Retrieved April 28, 2017, from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/living/docs3.html

 

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/experience/living/docs3.html

 

Primary source

 

 

 

Social media-

 

Starling, J. (2016, April 19). Abolitionist Board. Retrieved April 28, 2017, from https://www.pinterest.com/pin/328059154087300926/

 

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/328059154087300926/

 

secondary source

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